Career Stereotypes and Aspiration as Predictors of Students’ Independence in Career Choice at Education Transitional Levels in Uganda
Ms. AMPAIRE Anne examined the extent to which career stereotypes and aspirations predict students’ career choice at education transitional levels in Uganda. This was motivated by the continued challenges that impact on students’ independence in career choice and the extent to which career decisions are based on the available facts. This has led to students taking up careers that are not in line with their interests, value system, and skills, thereby compromising the outcome expectations. Overall, the results revealed that reliance on personal independence and career choice facts, is decreased by the prevailing career stereotypes, across the education transitional levels. This has resulted into an increase in the number of students who pursue careers that are inconsistent with their career aspirations and interests, and there is need for measures aimed at addressing those prevailing career stereotypes. The study was co-funded by myself and Makerere University and was supervised by Dr. Mayanja Kajumba and Prof. Anthony M. Mugagga.
The Representation of Women in Selected Plays of Euripides and Selected Ghanaian Playwrights
Ms. ANTWIWAA Stella employed feminist and postcolonial theories to interrogate the representation of women in selected classical Euripidean plays and selected Ghanaian playwrights to examine the ‘universalist’ view that the Classics are models for others to learn from. The research questions the hegemonic elevation of the Classical/Western values to examine African experiences. The study reveals that in terms of gender representations, the Classical Greek, through Euripides’ writings, does not provide examples for the Akan (Ghanaian/African) societies. The study recommends that African scholars need to adopt Afrocentric epistemology to examine African experiences in order to shift and balance the centres of knowledge production and circulation. Africa’s classics in history, art, myths, folktales and indigenous knowledge need to be foregrounded in scholarship to address the pedestal placement of the Western Classics as a yardstick to evaluate African artefacts. Granted the Classics continue to be valuable, scholars need to interrogate them when applied to different cultural experiences. This critical and comparative study challenges the ideology of the superiority of Western Classics over other cultures. This study was funded by Gerda Henkel Stiftung Foundation, and supervised by Prof. Dominica Dipio and Dr Danson Kahyana.
Kiswahili at Crossroads: Cultural Politics and Language Policy in Uganda.
Ms. ARINAITWE Perpetua studied historical narratives of different language policies and factors that impacted Kiswahili growth across the different historical periods; the pre-colonial period (1840-1894); the colonial period (1894-1962); and the post-colonial period (1962-2019). A blend of three approaches to language policy and planning (LPP); the Historical-structural model, the Neo-classical Model and Language Management Theory (LMT). A narrative technique enabled the collection of both qualitative and quantitative data. Findings revealed that Kiswahili growth has been dependent on numerous language policies stretching from the pre, during and post-colonial epochs. Constant shift in cultural and political leadership meant that whoever held power determined the language policies that favoured their leadership ideology. The study was funded by the GERDA HENKEL STIFFTUNG and was supervised by Dr Saudah Namyalo and Dr Gumoshabe Gilbert.
Female survivors’ Experiences of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) and access to justice in Uganda
Ms. ASIIMWE Stedia investigated female survivors’ experiences of intimate partner violence (IPV) and access to justice in Uganda, with a focus on relationships involving male police officers. The study was carried out in Jinja police barracks in Eastern Uganda. Methodologically, qualitative approach was employed, using case study design. Findings indicate that female survivors of IPV experienced physical, sexual, economic and psychological violence. Factors that triggered IPV against women in police families included: shared accommodation, poorly managed transfers and daily deployments, alcoholism, low salaries, refusing women to work outside the barracks and work related stress. Access to justice by female survivors of IPV was constrained by alien referral pathways to justice, abusers’ possession of a weapon, long procedures, laxity by authority to punish fellow officers, sexual harassment, women’s lack of information about their rights and Government’s failure to decentralize some services. The study argues that the arm of the law is too short to reach civilian female survivors of IPV, because the abusers are at the same time the vehicles through which justice is supposed to be delivered. The study recommends that police management should construct more houses for officers, include a module on Gender based violence in police training syllabus and use mult-professional teams to handle IPV cases. The study was funded by Makerere-Sweden Bilateral Research Program, and was supervised by Dr. Victoria Flavia Namuggala and Dr. Ruth Nsibirano.
A Comparative Analysis of Land ownership and Land conflicts in post-conflict areas of Luwero and Amuru Districts, Uganda: A Gender Perspective
Ms. ATWAGALA Donnah analysed the effects of landownership and land conflicts on gender perspectives in post-conflict areas of Luwero and Amuru Districts in Uganda. The findings show that the nature and causes of land conflicts have evolved, transforming from being local to becoming international. Actors and conflicts have become more sophisticated and complex to identify and analyse, respectively. The study recommends adopting the right-based, gender and conflict-sensitive land acquisition, ownership and management framework that will ensure equitable land acquisition, access and use by all stakeholders. This study was supervised by Dr. Paddy Musana and Assoc. Prof. Consolata Kabonesa.
A Sociocultural Exploration of Children’s Experiences and Perspectives on Gender-based Violence in Primary Schools in Busoga Sub-region, Uganda
Mr. BALIKOOWA Richard explored the experiences and perspectives of primary school children regarding gender-based violence in and around schools and its impact on their schooling; in Uganda’s Busoga sub-region. Using a sociocultural approach, Balikoowa adopted a multimethod design through which he involved 450 male and female school children from 10 to 14 years in participatory visual activities; including draw-and-talk, child-friendly focus group conversations, in-depth interviews; as well as the eclectic administration of a survey tool. Children acknowledged experiencing and/or witnessing gender-based violence in and around their schools. They also disclosed that gender-biased factors associated with school setup and gender-based violence immensely negatively affected their motivation to engage in school activities. However, children’s greatest nervousness and related impact on their schooling was attributed to the unresponsiveness and unempathetic attitude by those around them. The study recommended that stakeholders in children’s schooling should allow them reveal their challenges and also pay concerted attention to them as key participants in their development and schooling. The study was funded by the Andrew W. Mellon and was supervised by Assoc. Prof. Julius Fred Kikooma and Dr. David Onen.
Myth and Mythmaking in the Narratives about Mwalimu Julius Nyerere among the Banyakyusa
Mr. FEDEO Ignas studied the recreation of Nyerere’s personal life and political career in Banyakyusa myths. The study offers an alternative understanding of Nyerere’s life and history as perceived by local people. Using oral history interviews and content analysis, Banyakyusa myths which carry their culture, voices, beliefs, and perceptions of Nyerere were recorded. The myths were interpreted based on Banyakyusa traditional beliefs and their life experiences. The findings revealed that Banyakyusa believe that Nyerere was endowed with immerse supernatural and mystical powers which helped him to implement his presidential duties successfully and protect himself and the Tanzanian people. The study established the Banyakyusa belief that Nyerere’s mystical powers greatly account for the prominence of his ideas and the reverence accorded to him in Tanzania, Africa and the world at large. The study will promote preservation of Banyakyusa and other Africans oral materials especially myths which carry beliefs and perceptions of local people. This study was funded by Gerda-Henkel Stiftung Foundation and supervised by Prof Abasi Kiyimba and Dr. Benge Okot.
Land, social Change and the lives of nomadic pastoralists in Western Uganda since 1950
Mr. KATURAMU Alex examined the historical proliferation of nomadic pastoralists focusing on the issues of land and social change since 1950. In the results, seasonal movements culminated into land conflicts among pastoralists and farmers. The land conflicts were exacerbated by intensity of population in the cattle corridor. The study shows that pastoralists remain one of the secors that significantly contribute to Uganda’s Gross Domestic Product, hence deserving resource investiments to improve the livelihoods of herders. This study was supervised by Dr. Simon Peter Rutabajuuka and Dr. Charlottee Karungu Mafumbo.
Challenges of Strategic Plan Implementation in the North Western Diocese: Evangelical Lutheran Church in Tanzania
Rev. KIGEMBE Elmereck investigated the challenges that limited strategic plan implementation in the North Western Diocese of the Evangelical Lutheran church in Tanzania. The study identified Improper resource allocation, limited knowledge of implementers, un-conducive working conditions, lack of clear targets and changes in Government policies as negative actors in strategic plan implementation. For the church to effectively implement its strategic plan objectives so as to deliver God’s Mission, the study recommended strategic mobilization, monitoring and allocation of resources; integration of training in the strategic plan implementation processes; enhancement of working conditions; integration of clear targets in action plans and regular review of strategic plan instruments to accommodate changes in the government policy. The study was funded by the United Evangelical Mission (UEM) and supervised by Dr. Patrick Mangeni and Dr. Veneranda Mbabazi.
The Tonology of Lunyala Nouns, Noun Phrases and Verbs
Mr. KIRIGGWAJJO Anatole investigated the tonology of Lunyala one of Uganda’s minority languages mainly spoken in the district of Kayunga. He argues that although the tone system of Bantu languages has attracted a lot of attention in the last decade, minority languages have been neglected making such languages endangered. His study found out that Lunyala has a privative tone system with the High tone marked underlying while both the underlying and surface tones are borne by moras in a one-to-one correspondence. Further the tone distribution over the moras is determined by tonal processes for example; High and Low tone spreading, Obligatory contour Principle and Tonal polarity among others. He underscores the usefulness of the study in compiling Lunyala online-talking dictionaries and developing teaching and learning materials in Lunyala. This study was funded by Volkswagen Foundation and was supervised by Dr. Saudah Namyalo.
IMOKOLA John Baptist
Television Programming Regulation: Examining the Policy Implementation of Local Content Quotas in Uganda
Mr. IMOKOLA John Baptist examined the implementation of television local content quotas policy in Uganda. Five years after television local content quotas were implemented in 2014, no known comprehensive assessment had been done on uptake by television stations, and how the is understood by the different stakeholders. The study analyzed the perspectives of different stakeholders, opportunities from the local content quotas and the challenges affecting implementation. Using key informant interviews, focus group discussions and document analysis, the study found that Uganda Communications Commission, the television stations, the local content producers and the audience had reacted differently towards the policy. Implementation has seen increased production, acquisition, adaptation and airing of Ugandan content for television. Although there are opportunities created by the policy, achievement of these are bedeviled structural, conceptual, economic and political challenges affecting effective implementation. The study proposed a new definition of local content, and recommends a consultative process in the formulation and implementation of broadcast policies. This study was funded by Andrew Mellon CHUSS Fellowship and supervised by Prof. Goretti Linda Nassanga and Dr. Brian Semujju.
KYOMUHENDO Marjorie Niyitegeka
Family Planning Communication in Uganda: An Interrogation of Media Reporting, Communication Campaigns and Audience Perspectives
Ms. KYOMUHENDO Marjorie Niyitegeka’s study was motivated by the constant high awareness and low use of contraceptives by most women and men of reproductive age in Uganda. She thus examined the framing of family planning information in selected media stories and health communication campaigns. She also explored how audience members targeted by the campaigns interpreted family planning information. Her study found deficiencies in family planning communication occasioned by shallow media reporting and information transmission approaches that disregarded the audience’s information needs and contextual factors. She recommends that the Ministry of Health and partners implement a harmonised communication strategy that is audience-centred and responsive to the emerging information needs and socio-ecological contexts of particular audience segments. She further urges Uganda’s media to practise more enterprise and interpretive journalism in reporting family planning to amplify its significance to the public. The study was co-funded by CARTA and Makerere University, and was supervised by Prof.Goretti L. Nassanga and Prof. Anne R. Katahoire.
LUGWIRI Okombo Patrick
A citizen Sociolinguistics Appraisal of Kiswahili as a Tool for Social Integration in the East African Community
Mr. LUGWIRI Okombo Patrick employed the Citizen Sociolinguistics model to explore language-based decisions about Kiswahili among ordinary citizens in the East African Community, specifically, in Busia and Namanga border towns. Lugwiri’s study was motivated by Article 137(2) of the EAC Treaty (1999) which provides for the promotion of Kiswahili as a lingua franca of the Community. Using ethnographic methods, the study examined the patterns and extent of the use of Kiswahili, the nature of Kiswahili used, and citizens perceptions and attitudes to Kiswahili. The study found that Kiswahili is construed, constructed and appropriated differently by different citizens in different domains and spaces, and therefore, a highly varied language. While Kiswahili has the potential of a common language of communication and a tool for social integration in the EAC, issues of varieties and labels, contact and conflict between varieties, status and prestige, perceptions and attitudes, national and social identity, and linguistic power struggles impact negatively on this potential. The study recommended a shift in approach to Kiswahili in the EAC from the ‘top-down’ policies to ‘bottom-up’ or practice-based policies that take into account participation of ordinary citizens as makers and shapers of language policies. The study was funded by Gerda Henkel Fellowship and supervised by Dr Merit Kabugo and Dr Florence Bayiga.
Land Conflicts and Livelihoods of People Utilising Namatala Wetland in Eastern Uganda
Ms. MUDONDO Constance examined how land conflicts shape livelihoods of people. Using Namatala Wetland in Eastern Uganda as a case, she examined the conflict dimensions and drivers, land use, and conflict management mechanisms. She found that increasing demand for moist farm land shape conflict dimensions leading to cleavage formation based on class, ethnicity, and location. The emergent quests for territorial control and inequality result in violence, which hinders optimal use of land and diminishes wetland users’ capitals. Although formal conflict management strategies have been tried, they were largely protectionist and divisive, reinforcing feelings of relative deprivation and latent hostilities. Consequently, the wetland users have resorted to informal coping mechanisms like social-networks that act as collective labour, financial safety valves and buffers against attacks. She argues that alleviating the effects of land conflicts requires shifting from structural models to locally bred conflict management systems. The study was funded by SIDA and supervised by Dr. Robert Kabumbuli and Dr. Dauda Waiswa Batega.
Singing Politics: Popular Music, Popular Politics and Contingencies of Protest in NRM’s Uganda
Mr. MUGENYI Jonathan examined the deployment of musical expression in the practice of state politics under Uganda’s National Resistance Movement. On the one hand, he investigated the direct and implied ways by which the NRM deploys musical expression as a tool of political mobilisation and legitimization while on the other hand, he examined ways by which the Ugandan society uses musical expression to create alternatives ways of engaging with NRM politics. Expanding the Foucauldian theory of power, Mugenyi argues that musical expression is a conduit of state power that percolates into society and it is the same conduit that returns to the state to challenge its power as contingencies of protest. This study was funded under Makerere Institute of Social Research’s Interdisciplinary MPhil/PhD and was supervised by Prof. Mahmood Mamdani.
Commercial Sugarcane Farming and Rural Youth Livelihoods in Eastern Uganda
Mr. MWANIKA Kassim examined the implications of commercial farming on a vulnerable population. Focusing on sugarcane farming and youth livelihoods in Eastern Uganda, he found that sugarcane farming has a suboptimal impact on youth livelihoods in Busoga sub-region. Due to limited requisite resources, the youth constitute the bulk of sugarcane labour force and their benefits from the industry are limited to wage earnings. He argues that commercial sugarcane farming is an enclave for wealthy groups, and that youth are incorporated into circuits of capital accumulation where they are exploited by employers. The process is exacerbated by lack of labour regulations and sugarcane price volatility, which undermine the trickle-down effect of sugarcane farming on youth livelihoods. Enhancing outcomes from sugarcane farming requires addressing structural traps embedded in capitalist large-scale farming. The study was funded by SIDA and supervised by Assoc. Prof. Andrew Ellias State, Prof. Atekyereza Peter and Assoc. Prof. Torun Österberg.
NAKABO Seruga Robinah
Followership and Women’s Empowerment for Sustainable Development: A Case of the Women in the National Association of Women’s Organisations in Uganda
Ms. NAKABO Seruga Robinah investigated followership and women’s empowerment for sustainable development, taking the case of the women in NAWOU. After in-depth interviews, findings showed that followership was generally a taken for granted concept. Respondents perceived followership as a cooperative venture, retrospection on past experiences, as a detour, seeking to stabilise or destabilise the status quo, identifying preferred values, and mentorship. Most voices reiterated that generally, many women exhibited perpetual and unconscious followership tendencies even when other alternatives were available; with fear as the main causal condition. However, women’s followership of NAWOU was found to be pragmatic and conscious with the implication of possible empowerment; intervened by education, family ties, and financial situations. The conclusion was, depending on personal characteristics, perception of empowerment and the typology of followership adopted, women could gain empowerment for sustainable development. The recommendation is that NAWOU, the government, academic institutions, and similar organizations reconsider the concept of followership and its implications on empowerment. The study was supervised by Assoc Prof. Godfrey Assimwe, and Dr. Robert S. Esiruku
Intimate Partner Violence and Masculinities: Experiences of Baganda male “survivors” in Masaka District, Uganda
Ms. NAKALYOWA Deborah examined, through a qualitative methodology, the lived experiences of men who were subjected to Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) by their female intimate partners in heterosexual relationships, including forms/types in which the IPV manifested, and how it affected the masculine identities of the male victims. Findings revealed that they were subjected to psychological/emotional violence, in addition to physical aggression and sexual abuse in the contexts of Intimate Terrorism, Situational Couple Violence and Mutual Violent Control. While the importance of maintaining an appropriate sense of masculinity underpinned their narratives, the male victims described feeling shame and embarrassment for not having met the dominant cultural expectations surrounding masculinity, consequently affecting their emotional and physical well-being. However, the majority of men were hesitant to seek help after victimization, for fear of ridicule, emasculation and being cast as the perpetrators. Therefore, there is need for more research and advocacy to enhance recognition and public awareness about the plight of male victims, review of laws/policies aimed at combating IPV in intimate relationships to be more gender-inclusive, as well as establish victim service support sources for all IPV victims, regardless of gender. The study was funded by SIDA and supervised by Dr. Evelyn Lutwama-Rukundo and Assoc. Prof. Consolata Kabonesa
Why They Stay: A socio-cultural Reconstruction of Academics’ Retention in Uganda’s Public Universities.
Ms. NANSAMBA Joyce explains why Academics stay working in Uganda’s Public Universities despite unappealing working conditions. Recognizing that staff retention is not exclusively about institutional frameworks and individually situated explanations, the study underscores the role of historical, social and cultural contexts in explaining retention. A narrative analysis of the academics’ stories revealed that the meaning academics attach to their professional identity, the social relations from engaged scholarship and the otherness from external prestige explain their retention. The study was a departure from conventional thinking that attractive pay and benefits, satisfactory terms of service, good working conditions among others explain retention. It was a novel step to studying retention as a social construction from the perspective of Academics’ own experiences. The study was funded by Makerere University and supervised by Assoc Prof. Julius Kikooma and Assoc Prof. Umar Kakumba.
Oil Politics and Land Conflicts in the Albertine Region, Uganda
Mr. NIRINGIYIMANA Julius investigated how oil politics was influencing the changing nature of land conflicts in the Albertine region of Uganda. The study discovered that though the Ugandan government had been engaging in protracted negotiations with multinational oil corporations in an effort to protect the national interests, the process instead got plagued by land conflicts and dispossession of citizens from their land. It established that the interests of the actors conflicted and led to the politicization of oil governance. Consequently, the government was made to adjust its position to accommodate the interests of multinational oil corporations while other opportunistic interests, such as land speculators also took advantage. These actions made the affected persons to lose their land rights which invoked and intensified land conflicts in form of Polanyi’s ‘countermovement’ and adversely affected people’s livelihoods. The study concluded that where neoliberal capitalism interfaces with an oil-producing developing country, citizens face dispossession of land and other rights, and where there are pre-existing land conflicts, the politicisation of oil intensifies them and produces new ones. The study recommends that the Ugandan state should re-assert its interests and obligations to protect people’s land rights and make multinational oil corporations to adhere to internationally established benchmarks such as fair compensation. This study was funded by SIDA and supervised by Prof Muhumuza William and Prof Murindwa Rutanga.
A History of Migrancy, Nativism, and Citizenship in Uganda, 1894-1995: A case of South and Western Uganda
Mr. TUNANUKYE Nicholas examined the relationship between migrations, identity formations and citizenship in Uganda, 1894-1995 using migration experiences of Bakiga and Banyankole into Buganda, and Bakiga into Bunyoro. Using historical research methods which included analysis of documents, oral narratives and archival sources, the study established that, whereas migration had taken place in the region of pre-Uganda, colonial rule encouraged unprecedented internal migration in Uganda. The new socio-economic order brought about by the colonial state opened the way for free movement in the protectorate across ethnic boundaries. There were two main reasons for this accelerated migration: migrant labour and search for land. The migration of Banyankole and Bakiga from southwestern region of Uganda to Buganda in the 1930s, 1940s into 1960s was largely in response to the former, while the migration of the Bakiga into Bunyoro and Toro regions during the 1950s and 1960s was in response to latter. The study also established that there were complex interactions between the migrating and receiving communities. One major complexity lay in the attitude of nativism, expressed in subtle ways. Nativism gave rise to two kinds of citizenship consciousness: the Local Citizenship bestowed by membership to an ancestral community inhabiting a particular region and National Citizenship bestowed by the statutes of the Ugandan state. The study was funded by The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation and was supervised by Dr. Simon Peter Rutabajuuka and Dr. Deo Nzarwa Katono.
A critique of Constitutional making and amendment in Uganda with Reference to the 1967 &1995 Constitution
Mr. WAMAMELA Nixon conducted an ethical critique of constitutional making and amendment in Uganda with specific reference to the 1967 and 1995 constitutions. The study established that the constitutional processes were seemingly legitimate, yet, self-interest tendencies overrode common interest, hence, the resultant controversies such as lack of consensus among members of parliament, questionable declaration of state of emergency, controversial consultations, resultant scuffles and violent scenes in parliament. It was also established that ideals of constitutional democracy and legislative ethics were lacking. To mitigate the above challenges, an ethical framework for constitutional making and amendment processes should be put into account. Such a framework should include referenda, benchmarking and a national consensus on ethical principles, declaration of conflict of interest by the incumbents and other possible beneficiaries. These are possible through creation of ethics review committee within parliament. The study was funded by Andrew W. Mellon Foundation and supervised by Prof. Archangel Rukooko Byaruhanga and Dr. Paul Matthias Shimiyu.
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Mak School of Languages to start new Masters programmes in different languages next year 2023
The School of Languages, Literature and Communication will next year 2023 start new graduate programs in different languages including French, Kiswahili, English studies and Luganda among others.
This was disclosed during the school’s open day held on 9th December 2022 at the Yusuf Lule Auditorium. The school also launched two books and a journal of languages.
The Dean School of Languages, Literature and Communication Dr. Saudah Namyalo said the school has nurtured and churned out great men and artists through the gates of Makerere University.
“We are also here to celebrate out languages and cultures. We believe in unity in diversity. As you can see we have students from different ethnic backgrounds. We have been involved in different researches that’s why we are here today celebrating those achievements”, She said
To support the University in its strategic move of transforming into a research led university, Dr. Namyalo said the school will ensure that they have adequate graduate programs.
“The school has come up with master’s degree in French studies, Literature, Journalism and communication, Linguistics and many more. So the school is in the process of finalizing most of these curricular. And we believe with all these programs, we shall be able to do research in our languages”, Namyalo explained
Recognizing that the entire world survives partly on science and technology, Dean Namyalo stressed that linguistics believe that the country cannot have meaningful transformation if science and technology is dressed in foreign languages.
“So what we are doing as a school is to position ourselves, do research and publish to ensure that our languages can be used to teach science and technology. This is possible as we have seen it happen in other countries like China and Japan. We believe if we do the same we are going to have all these wonderful innovations by both highly and non-highly educated communicated in a language they understand. And that’s part of our agenda and we believe as linguistics, we have a very big block to add to science and technology advancement in Uganda”, she added.
Dr. Namyalo appealed to parents to pass on their heritage to their children calling upon them to speak to children in their mother tongue.
“We have the educated group of people thinking that when you speak with your child from birth in a foreign language, then they will become intelligent and prosperous but as linguists we think to the contrary and believe that if you deny your child opportunity to speak, grow and develop using their own mother tongue, you are doing a very big disadvantage to them.
Also remember that our languages and cultures make us who we are. I am a Muganda because I have a language and a culture associated to me. Now when you kill this that means you are going to become a nobody”, The Dean advised.
The Principal College of Humanities and Social Sciences Prof. Josephine Ahikire described the school as a cradle for language diversification in the region hence the celebrating.
“The school has curved out its kind of celebration that has a rich menu of poems, songs, presentations by our alumni”.
She said the school has developed a number of Masters programs to help the university achieve its goal of becoming research led.
“As A university we continue to enrich the curriculum and for Makerere, the next step that we are taking is to become a research led. It is at graduate level that you produce a true skilled university graduate, continue to build that capacity of critical thinkers and innovators to solve human predicaments”, the Principal said.
The celebration were also marked by two panel discussions. Prof. Oswold Ndolerire delivered the key note speech on Trends and Perspectives of Language Teaching at Makerere University. Panelists Dr. Aisha Nakiwala, Mrs Shirley Byakutaga, the representative from the German embassy Mr. Christian Kettlhut and the representative of the Libyan Embassy Hesham gave their reflections on the topic.
Prof. Abasi Kiyimba delivered a keynote speech on the Reflections on the Historical 1962 Literary Conference at Makerere University with panelists Julian Namiyinga and Dr. Danstan Kahyana giving their reflections.
The centennial celebrations were also characterized by cultural performances from students consisting of fashion show, songs, dance and poetry recitations in Kiswahili, Spanish, German, French, English, Chinese, Runyakitara, Luo, Madi, Luganda among others.
A nation without culture is no nation- Mak DVCAA
In his closing remarks, the Deputy Vice Chancellor in charge of Academic Affairs represented by CAES Principal Assoc. Prof. Gorrettie Nabanoga commended the school for the exemplary performance exhibited by the students.
“Thank you for showcasing what Makerere has. I didn’t know our students would sing, dance, show case talent and I realized that out there Makerere is not known I hope the media has captured this because it’s the first of its kind to be demonstrated by Makerere University.
This is what we call solid engagement with each other across disciplines. What has happened here today has not just been a show, it is a celebration of the field of languages literature and communication. This is a celebration within a hundred years and we are glad to witness the school of languages literature and communication achieve in time”, She said.
Nabanoga noted that the discussion of the trends and perspectives of language teaching at Makerere university and the impact of the famous 1962 Literally conference of writers in English expression which is also celebrating 60 years is a confirmation that the university engages the past to be able to build the future as the motto states.
In having these conversations, Nabanoga said, it shows the relevance of language to national development and open conversations on how to relate with each other.
“I am sure that this is a conversation that should not end here but continue for years to come. We must not lose our language because there are part of who we are and they demonstrate our cultural heritage.
A nation without culture is no nation. The fact that we embrace our culture continues to have us who we are. We must also have languages so as to have a better way of serving each other in the world. We are one family though different cultures, everything is one.” Dr. Nabanoga stressed
Nabanoga commended the School of Languages Literature and Communication for showing the way in this regard.
“Art demonstrates a lot, culture is an art and as we embrace diversity we cannot forget that the School of Languages Literature and Communication has showed us what we ought to do at Makerere University. Allow me thank the leadership of the whole college at CHUSS for your commitment in ensuring that the humanities do not merely survive but actually thrive at Makerere university. This is the beginning, we expect to see more of such events in the college”, She added.
She appreciated all participants for making time to participate in this event, promising full support for the disciplines understudy in the school of languages literature and communication.
If you missed this massive event, catch up on line by clicking on the link below:
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Mak New hires trained on varsity policies, curriculum development & implementation
The main objectives were to update the new hires in terms of the policies and to help them know the core business of curriculum development and implementation and to make sure that they are effective teachers.
The third new hires workshop held in the Yusuf Lule Auditorium a was organized by CHUSS Centre of Excellence in Research, Teaching and Learning (CERTL). The College of Humanities and Social Sciences (CHUSS), received a grant from the Mellon Foundation of New York for the establishment of the center to explore and develop mechanisms of strengthening and promoting teaching and learning in the humanities and social sciences.
The third new hires training was facilitated by panelists from university Directorates, prominent alumni and former staff working outside Makerere University including Prof. Aaron Mushengyezi, the Vice Chancellor Uganda Christian University (UCU) Mukono. The workshop was officially opened by the Deputy Vice Chancellor in charge of Academic Affairs (DVCAA) represented by the Principal, College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences Assoc. Prof. Gorettie Nabanoga.
The DVC AA appreciated all those involved in this noble task of orienting new staff noting that the importance of employee orientation in many organizations is often understated. The new hires workshop according to the DVCAA was in line with the mandate of the university in ensuring that teaching and learning is effective and secondly, it was timely for new hires to be aware of the changes brought by COVID in the way teaching and learning is conducted.
“Orientation serves to assist new employees with the tools and information they need to succeed in the job. It establishes the stage for human resource processes and company policy in the organization. An effective employee orientation program like this one will make a notable difference in how swiftly a new employee becomes prolific with other long-term impressions on the organization”, Part of the speech read
The DVC commended all those who have put aside their commitments to come and provide the new recruits with the tools and information they require to serve the university.
“Orientation encourages employee confidence and helps the new employee adapt faster to the job; Contributes to a more effective, productive workforce; Improves employee retention; and. Promotes communication between the supervisor and the new employee. Without an adequate, skilled and well-motivated workforce operating within a sound human resource management programme, development is not possible, “he added.
The DVC AA congratulated and welcomed the new hires for successfully joining Makerere noting that the University has many opportunities but, like any other higher education institution, there are challenges including; the academic student -staff ratio, inadequate funding, staff welfare issues, and infrastructural challenges and challenges related to managing relationships, training and ddevelopment, talent retention, diversity in the workplace, embracing inevitable change as well as employee health and well-being.
Besides the Policy Framework, Financial Sustainability and Infrastructure Support, the the DVCAA reported that the new Strategic Plan (2020/21-2030/31) considers Human resource as the foundation of the University’s success.
He pledged the University commitment to have an integrated and innovative people-centered services that foster attraction, retention and development of an engaged, rewarded, motivated, healthy and effective workforce supporting the strategic direction of the University.
The objectives under Human Resource Development according to the Deputy Vice Chancellor include; to attract, recruit and retain quality Human Resource to support the mission of the University; to create an enabling environment for optimal performance of staff in service delivery; and to increase the capacity of teaching staff to deliver using modern pedagogy, including use of Online, Distance and e-Learning (ODEL) technologies.
“The university has continued to lobby government and succeeded on welfare where salaries for staff were more than doubled by the target period. Appraisal tools were developed and are being used and staff development programmes, including sabbaticals, were instituted. The academic staff-student ratio was decreased which is within acceptable levels internationally and we continue to pursue our goal of becoming research led- a move to focus more on graduate training” he added.
He reminded recruits that Makerere is an equal opportunity institution that embraces diversity in order to achieve maximum potential without discrimination. He implored them to commit to the university’s core values including accountability and upholding ethos that meet the expectations of the different stakeholders
The DVC AA also implored employees to uphold Professionalism and adopt work ethics that demonstrate competence and capacity to generate results to the expected institutional, national, international and discipline specific standards.
“We also cherish integrity and upholding ethical values that will ensure that you do the right thing in all circumstances and maintaining the value of honesty, trust and responsibility in all your actions.
You are expected to have respect for fellow staff and students and that you will conduct yourselves with due regard and consideration for the rights of others and ensure acknowledgement, attention and good judgement in dealings with all our stakeholders”, he added
He applauded CHUSS and CERTL for this initiative and asked the Director and his team to continue using it to improve teaching and learning. As management, we also pledge our continued support to the center.
Session one on Makerere University academic and other policies brought together a panel of experts including Patience Mushyengyezi representing the Academic Registrar who spoke on academic policies. The Director Quality Assurance Dr. Cyprian Misinde presented on Quality Assurance policy while the Mr. Julius Lebo who represented the Acting Director Ssanyu Lawrence deliberated on the Human resources policy and the Director Gender Mainstreaming Dr. Baine Euzobia presented the Gender mainstreaming policy and the Sexual Harassment policy.
Session two of the training was on working at a university and focused on privileges and academic responsibilities with advise from panelists: Prof. Paul Birevu Muyinda, Prof. Anthony Muwagga Mugagga, Prof. Florence Kyoheirwe Muhanguzi and Dr. James Taabu Busimba.
Aspects covered in session two included: Managing relationship with colleagues, Heads of Departments, Deans and Principals, Academics and senate Academics and peers, Academics and support staff, preparation to teach and Sexual Harrassment and Teaching that as the elephant in the room .
The training was also graced by Vice Chancellor Uganda Christian University Mukono Prof. Aaron Mushengyezi. In his keynote address titled: From Teaching Assistant to Vice Chancellor: The academic and professional journey of Makerere academic. Prof. Mushengyezi advised new hires that it is alright to start small as a Teaching Assistant and progress step by step, but always endeavor to publish and aim at professorship as the goal.
Mushengyezi described Makerere as a place full of opportunities and privileges for employees to tap into saying, working as an academic requires hard work and commitment but, a sacrifice worth making.
He advised new employees to define the philosophy of their leadership, lead to make a difference and serve beyond self-saying, sometimes they have to make sacrifices of their leisure and use creativity to make things work.
The professor also urged employees to pursue dreams beyond the university obligations, engage in community work, join good networks, support just courses, stand for the good of the institution, be sober minded, and to always put God first.
“Professorship is our dream us academicians, we all dream to be professors. Position yourself, find out what you are good at and use it as an opener for you. When there is always an opportunity for you, go for it. The biggest problem is our mindset change. Always be focused and deal with mindsets.
Join good networks of winners and associate with people who are innovative because you learn from them. Find a good mentor with mentorship skills that you admire. Lastly live to make a change in the community and God will bless you”, he advised.
The Director CERTL Prof. Andrew Ellias State told new hires that they are expected to communicate with students very well and to remember that culture and emotions affect communication hence the need to check their teaching effectiveness.
“Students will also remember you because of your unique teaching techniques and you need to ask and evaluate yourself if you doing the right thing. Promote effective learning by encouraging students to deal with challenges in class and bring out the ideas and also debates. Do not prejudge. Engage students in active learning. ”, Prof. State advised
From the day’s discussion State asked new hires to pick positive professional relationships on reason that they are going to be in a community with other scholars, colleagues and are also going to teach multiple classes, serve on other committees, have family and also squeeze in time for scholarship.
“Take time and talk to others If the opportunity presents and involve those in and out of your department. On top of that, be kind, patient for the interests of others, don’t be selfish. Develop a reputation for acting with integrity and trying to understand your colleagues’ perspectives and avoid departmental factions.
Support networks, seek out mentoring in your profession line. Attend conferences, tell colleagues what your research interests are, where you want to specialize in. Take out colleagues for coffee and tea in case you have something to discuss”, State advised.
Prof. State also advised employees never to give up when their articles for publication get nasty comments but instead marry their science, for better or worse, pursue their passions and make sure they are good and also learn to say no and not to be afraid to change directions.
Make Philosophy a cross cutting & compulsory course – UNESCO
Makerere University Department of Philosophy together with the Uganda National Commission for UNESCO (UNATCOM) on 17th November ,2022 joined the rest of the world to celebrate the 20th World Philosophy Day with a call for reforms in Uganda’s education system to make Philosophy a cross cutting and compulsory course.
This year’s celebration under the Global theme, “Humans of the Future”. Uganda chose to refine the theme to speak to pressing challenges hence the theme, “Harnessing Philosophy for addressing Uganda’s Development challenges”.
The World Philosophy Day coincided with Makerere University’s celebration of 100 years of existence and service to humanity and offered an opportunity both to celebrate the immense contribution made by Philosophy in understanding the world and to further reflect.
Amidst the ongoing debates on the importance of the Humanities, the debate at this event steered conversation among the academia, government, civil society and the general public on how Philosophy can inform progress in various aspects of individual and national aspirations.
Scholars argued that Uganda has a creativity, anticipation and the empathy gap premised in philosophy and that the humanity and humanism in this country cannot be restored unless the philosophical approach is resuscitated. Unfortunately, philosophy is taught at higher levels in universities and when people search for courses, philosophy becomes the last opt option not taken as a serious course yet the country needs people to be patriotic, hopeful for the sake of development.
Convening at Makerere University Senate Conference Hall, the celebrants stressed that development cannot be achieved without including philosophy which starts with developing the human mind philosophically so that man is at peace with the environment sustainably.
When young people are in malaise bored in the morning, scholars asserted that you can only harness their strength to work for the development of this country when they have the philosophy and tenets for hope. Philosophy in that regard, brings that hope, critical thinking in humanity that is why philosophy should be a crosscutting course like communication skills, ICT and Ethics.
For example, people are downgrading all the swamps, trees are being cut but people do not think about tomorrow. Shall we teach that in textbooks and examine that? The fact that people do not have the philosophical mind even to think of what they are going to leave for their children and the future generation, is partly the reason humanities scholars say need philosophy in colleges and institutions of higher learning.
Major propositions from the meeting
- Parliament of Uganda enacts a policy that makes the teaching of Philosophy compulsory at all educational levels.
- Makerere University works with other stakeholders to draft a proposal and submit to the Education Policy Review Commission (EPRC) chaired by the former Education and Public Service Minister Amanya Mushega.
- Makerere University mobilises other stakeholders to draft a paper to the President of the Republic of Uganda through the Directorate of Ethics and Integrity on the role of Humanities and Social Sciences in addressing Uganda’s development challenges.
- Makerere University champions and rolls out dialogues in public, private and non-governmental organizations and the general public on the importance of humanities and social sciences, and philosophy in particular.
Presiding over the function as Chief Guest, the Chairman Board of Governors Uganda National Commission for UNESCO Prof. Eliabu Lugujjo said UNESCO has urged its member states to take philosophy as a unifier and an intersection in human development.
To him, the first activity required for this involves the preparation of a study about the present state of teaching of philosophy in the world as an indispensable pre requisite for any future activity in this domain, since alert, enlightened reflection is the guarantor of action that is intelligent and to the point.
Lugujjo stressed that Philosophy finds its place at the intersection of education and the social sciences and humanities. In Uganda, he observed that there is an emphasis on the immediate utility of disciplines that are offered in higher institutions of learning with the priority being technological sciences.
“But we forget that the ideal utility is in itself philosophical. Even the concept Science cannot be understood outside of philosophy…. We should understand that natural and technological science have roots in pre-socratic, medieval and modern philosophical thought” He asserted
This according to Lugujjo implies that meaningful science should be founded in philosophy. In the area of humanities and social sciences, philosophy offers among others criticality, creativity and humanness that form the essence of such disciplines and therefore philosophy is a cross cutting discipline.
“…Philosophy should be given a special attention in Uganda’s academia and practice. Let us take an example of the political challenges we have gone through as a people; the immediate question is how can we co-exist? If we stopped asking such questions, the dignity of human person, respect for others, tolerance, social justice and liberty lose meaning and we may go back to the state of nature as postulated by Thomas Hobbes, where there is war of each against all”, He stressed.
Taking an example of corruption and social injustices and their far reaching implications on the wellbeing of Ugandans, Prof. Lugujjo challenged participants to ask hard questions about the root cause and what ought to be done.
“Whereas STEM is good, it must be done with philosophy at the background because you cannot build a bridge without considering the impact to society or construct a road without considering the sociological aspect of what you are doing. Science can germinate more, when it considers the humanities”, the professor stated.
The Principal College of Humanities and Social Sciences represented by Prof. Patrick Mangeni said the conversation on the Harnessing Philosophy for addressing Uganda’s Development challenges is critical and important for the academia.
“In a number of cases, many people do not seem to appreciate the role of the knowledge seeking discipline and disposition it brings to our lives. We are in a take away generation where thinking is left as a preserve of the isolated field. It is important when we locate our discipline and conversation within the realm of knowledge because a number of people take humanities as less contributing in its base to development.” Mangeni said.
Unlike other countries where highly and A – scoring students enroll to pursue philosophy Mangeni decried that in Uganda, the program is taken as a last resort after applicants fail to secure places of their priority courses. He however reported that within the limitations, departments have continued to do tremendous work and endeavored to make students appreciate the subject.
“We have produced students with excellent performance and have moved out and made an impact to many countries and that can be testified by the number of people in the field of philosophy”.
Professor Mangeni described the day’s conversation as significant in terms of visibility imploring the head of Department to devise means of sharing them out and come up with more activities such as public lectures and seminars in the field of philosophy.
The Head Department of Philosophy Dr. Spire Ssentongo thanked all participants for honoring the invitation to celebrate and having a constructive conversation inspired by philosophy saying the engagement will discredit the unfortunate believe that philosophy is basically an area of highly abstract matters and air splitting that has little to do with life and existing challenges of society.
Dr. Spire urged colleagues in the field of philosophy to demystify the impression that philosophy is about big grammar adding that anyone who sets out to communicate yet deliberately making it difficult for others to understand, can only be described as crazy.
“It is my hope that today is about a conversation that will make realistic efforts to be understood. One of the challenges of philosophy today is that it continues to live without proving its importance to anyone that cannot find it.
Philosophy appears to carry the attitude of a mother who may seem to look on as her children denounce her uselessness. She may frown and curse but not so to refute them. This has become a challenge because we live in a world where unfortunately the value of things is measured by whether they are defined by the powerful or not”, He said.
Dr. Spire observed that philosophy today finds itself on a shaky ground in neoliberal terms where the education is left to the market and forces of demand and supply to determine what is worth. In addition, philosophy continues to be threatened in a harsh world of scientism that is growing more than critical thinking.
“Philosophers in the past lived a quiet life of pursuing knowledge without a burden of proving their relevance in material path and now forced to join the crazy stampede of territory, money and disciplinary survival. Philosophers may choose to lament about these changes and stringent demand of them but we also need to remember the African saying: – that the groans of the goat does not stop the seller dragging it to the market.
As we work for a better educational order, in the meantime we may need to ask ourselves how do we position ourselves in the markets that is the reason for mobilizing this conversation but without totally surrendering it to the whims of the market”, He challenged.
Dr. Spire said the beauty of philosophical discussion which sound is construed as a weakness, is that it is characterized by constant questioning adding that once something has an answer, it ceases to be philosophy and becomes an entirely new discipline hence the continuous breakaway of disciplines from philosophy from history.
“Whereas philosophical inquiry may not provide direct answers, it produces questions that may handle it to the discovery of answers as well as the discovery of new disciplines. While philosophy is not a hard science, it contemplative discussion has contributed and still contributes to the creation of hard sciences.
Much of what we know today for scientific facts started with philosophical speculation through asking difficult questions challenging convention wisdom. In view of the above approach philosophy is unlike other disciplines in the sense that it does not limit itself to a particular matter the way biology speaks about living things for example. Philosophy focuses on unanswered questions of various subjects and beyond old disciplines”, He explained.
The World Philosophy Day
This year 2022, the world celebrates the 20th Philosophy day that was initiated by UNESCO in 2002 by UNESCO General Conference that highlighted the importance of this discipline especially for young people. The general Conference underlined that Philosophy is a discipline that encourages critical and independent thought and is capable of working towards better understating of the world and promoting tolerance and peace.
UNESCO hopes to promote philosophical reflections throughout the world by opening spaces and encouraging people to share their philosophical heritage, opening their minds to new ideas, and inspiring public debate on society’s challenges.
The commemoration of the World Philosophy day on the third Thursday of November is reported to be associated with the birthday of Plato, a Greek philosopher born in Anthens during the classical period in ancient Greece. UNESCO as the initiator leads the World Philosophy Day but does not own it. It belongs to everyone who cares about philosophy.
This year’s Global theme is, “Humans of the Future” given the contestation about the concept, “human” and that human being of today has been affected a lot by politics, economics, socialization, science and technology which have an implication on the human being of the future in terms of development especially in Uganda.
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