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Humanities & Social Sciences

Makerere University Celebrates Prof. Timothy Wangusa@80

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By Lazarus Okurut

It was a literati affair on Friday 8th July 2022 at Makerere University as the men and women from different spheres of life gathered to celebrate the homecoming of the eminent octogenarian poet, novelist and teacher, Professor Timothy Wangusa. The Department of Literature in the College of Humanities and Social Sciences (CHUSS) organized the event as part of the University’s rallying activities for its centenary celebrations on course this year.

In his remarks, the Acting Vice Chancellor, Professor Umar Kakumba was pleased to recognize and celebrate Professor Timothy Wangusa as “one of Makerere’s treasured literary sons” whose academic journey was “remarkable and arresting”. He described the event as an acknowledgment of the university’s “rich heritage and the people who have worked resolutely to build its indomitable strength in its century of existence.”

Left to Right: Professor Timothy Wangusa, Professor Umar Kakumba and Professor Josephine Ahikire view proceedings during the celebration.
Left to Right: Professor Timothy Wangusa, Professor Umar Kakumba and Professor Josephine Ahikire view proceedings during the celebration.

The Head of the Department of Literature was in a buoyant frame of mind and demonstrated his pride in the event by adorning a t-shirt with Wangusa’s portrait. He also declared that he was a conflicted man who did not know whether to celebrate Wangusa as a fellow Mumasaaba that had faced the knife at the foothills of Mt. Masaaba or the literary giant that made the name of the Department sound beyond Makerere’s gates.

Further setting the mood of the afternoon, the Dean of the School of Languages, Literature and Communication, Dr. Sauda Namyalo amused the audience by presenting a toy giraffe to “Baby Tim” through the “youngest” member of the Literature Department Professor Abasi Kiyimba. In a jovial mood, the Principal of the College of Humanities and Social Sciences, Professor Josephine Ahikire remarked that “Many times, we never get the chance to celebrate the life and work of our icons while they are still with us in flesh and blood. It is therefore a great honour and privilege to celebrate Professor Wangusa today, with the icon himself in our midst.”

Dr. Edgar Nabutanyi (R) and Dr. Susan Kiguli (2nd R) present a gift to Professor Timothy Wangusa as the DVCAA, Professor Umar Kakumba applauds.
Dr. Edgar Nabutanyi (R) and Dr. Susan Kiguli (2nd R) present a gift to Professor Timothy Wangusa as the DVCAA, Professor Umar Kakumba applauds.

At eighty years of age, Professor Timothy Wangusa cuts the figure of a distinguished and accomplished person. Born in Bugisu, Wangusa was educated at Nabumali High School and King’s College Budo before joining Makerere University for his Bachelors’ degree. He then moved to the University of Leeds for his Masters in Literature before returning to Makerere University as a member of staff in 1969. A man of many firsts, as the Vice Chancellor described him, he pursued his doctoral studies in literature graduating in 1975 as the first Ph.D in the Department of Literature, and one of the University’s very first two since becoming independent in 1970. He was appointed Professor in 1981, just twelve years after joining the University’s faculty. At the time, the University boasted of not more than five African Professors. Having served the University in various capacities as a Teaching Assistant, Head of Department and Dean, he retired from Makerere in 2001. He has since served as the Vice Chancellor of Kumi University and played an instrumental role in the establishment of the Department of Languages and Literature at Uganda Christian University. He also previously served briefly as Minister of Education in 1985-1986 and later as a member of the Constituent Assembly in 1994-1995.

Panelists Right to Left: Dr. Ernest Okello Ogwang, Professor Arthur Gakwandi, Ms Elizabeth Kharono, Mr. Deusdedit Kansiime and Mr. James Amatre.
Panelists Right to Left: Dr. Ernest Okello Ogwang, Professor Arthur Gakwandi, Ms Elizabeth Kharono, Mr. Deusdedit Kansiime and Mr. James Amatre.

A panel comprising speakers with an excellent understanding of Professor Timothy Wangusa, his works and literature enabled the young and old in the room and online, to gain a deeper understanding of Professor Timothy Wangusa, his life as an academic, scholar, writer, social person and as a human being. The panel moderated by Dr. Susan Kiguli comprised: Professor Arthur Gakwandi, Dr. Okello Ogwang, Ms Elizabeth Kharono, Mr. James Amatre and Mr. Deusdedit Kansiime.

While Professor Abasi Kiyimba who chaired the keynote address, acknowledged that Professor Wangusa is a big name because of his writing, he argued that this was not the real reason for the enthusiasm the Department, the College and the University injected in organizing an event of the kind. Alluding to critical comments on D. H Lawrence as a “fine man of letters but a terrible human being to deal with”, the real reason for the enthusiasm, the Professor Kiyimba pointed out, was the person himself. His comments echoed those of the Chairperson of the organizing committee, Danson Kahyana, who described Professor Timothy Wangusa as “a wonderful teacher, a selfless mentor, a supportive colleague, a loving comrade and a caring friend”.

Professor Abasi Kiyimba (L) present a gift to Professor Timothy Wangusa as the DVCAA, Professor Umar Kakumba witnesses.
Professor Abasi Kiyimba (L) present a gift to Professor Timothy Wangusa as the DVCAA, Professor Umar Kakumba witnesses.

In his keynote address, the equally renowned Mwalimu Austin Bukenya, who had specifically returned from an event in Zanzibar for the event, described Timothy Wangusa as a man of the word and the world, who “has always been ready and willing to engage the wide world society of politics, public administration and many other activities.” In pointing out that the excellent communication skills that are the hall mark of all Professor Wangusa’s operations as a man of the world were acquired through linguistic and literary education, the eloquent scholar was adamant in his belief that there is no discipline that is useless. Whereas the scientific disciplines are important in skilling people in technical operations, the humanities, he pointed out, make people agents of humaneness. Indeed, his description of the humanities as human sciences speaks to the balance he envisages between scientific and artistic disciplines.

Referring to a Kenyan dramatist who likened prioritizing the one over the other to trying to walk along with one foot, he warned that the disparagement and degradation of the humanities would result in “a country of dumb, uncultured, rude and crude philistine robots, with neither desire nor ability to communicate with fellow human beings.” He challenged his audience to use the tools Professor Wangusa had armed them with to “fight for the value and validity of the humanities which sensitise, train and guide all our people in the true values of ubuntu, utu, obuntubulamu, that enable civilized human society”. This, Mwalimu Bukenya reasoned, was the best present his audience could give to a man who according to him had “pulled down the Holy Trinity from the exalted heights of heaven to the soil of our fields, with a word”.

Mwalimu Austin Bukenya delivers his keynote address.
Mwalimu Austin Bukenya delivers his keynote address.

Described by one of his students, poet and teacher, Dr. Susan Kiguli, as a living example of irony being “so slight of build yet he effortlessly carries around a mountain of achievements”, Professor Timothy Wangusa was as witty as ever in thanking his audience for bestowing such honor upon him. As if picking up the thread of his colleague, Mwalimu Austin Bukenya, he located himself in arithmetic terms “equidistantly” between his alma mater, Makerere University, which celebrates a century this year and his country, Uganda, which marks 60 years of independence this year. He informed his audience that both his teaching and writing careers point to and emphasise the “mutual importance of the spoken word and the written word especially in their being used creatively”. Both careers, he said, were informed by his discovery of the significance of the economy of words.

The event featured performances of the Professor Wangusa’s poems by the Third Year Poetry Class 2021/2022. It was also marked by Professor Wangusa’s family led by Ann Ayeta Wangusa spearheading the launch of Mwambu Cradle Publishers and four new publications from the Professor which included: I Love You, You Beast, Pathfinder’s Footprints, Niyaanga Nelaliila and Lost in Wonder. Professor Timothy Wangusa’s published literary works include Salutations, A Pattern of Dust, Anthem for Africa, Africa’s New Brood, Bilomelele Bye Lukingi Masaaba (Poems of Mount Elgon), The State is my Shepherd and other selected Poems, Upon this Mountain, and Betwixt Mountain and Wilderness.

Students from the Department of Literature perform the Imbalu dance.
Students from the Department of Literature perform the Imbalu dance.

The Professor was presented with among other gifts-Mak@100 souvenirs, nine (9) books published by Makerere University Press, and poems from FEMRITE and the third year Poetry Class 2021/2022 represented by Pharis Kateregga.

This year (2022), Professor Timothy Wangusa born on 20th May 1942, celebrates 80 years. To celebrate his 80th birthday with the Makerere University family, Professor Wangusa received a cake baked by Mrs. Sheila Gowa who is 93 years old. Professor Wangusa cut the cake amidst applause from the audience and befitting birthday melodies.

Professor Timothy Wangusa (5th R) is joined by family and CHUSS Leadership; Principal-Prof. Josephine Ahikire (2nd R), Deputy Principal-Dr. Eric Awich Ochen (R) and Head Literature-Dr. Edgar Nabutanyi (3rd R) to cut cake.
Professor Timothy Wangusa (5th R) is joined by family and CHUSS Leadership; Principal-Prof. Josephine Ahikire (2nd R), Deputy Principal-Dr. Eric Awich Ochen (R) and Head Literature-Dr. Edgar Nabutanyi (3rd R) to cut cake.

The Deputy Principal of the College of Humanities and Social Sciences, Dr. Eric Awich Ochen closed the event and lauded Wangusa for holding the torch up high for the young scholars from the College to emulate.

The event, sponsored by Fountain Publishers, Uganda Communication Commission, Femrite, Soft Power News, , Next Media, and The Edge Uganda, comes at a time when the country is polarized by the debate over the fate of letters.

Professor Timothy Wangusa's family led by his daughter Ayeta Anne Wangusa (at podium) deliver their remarks at the celebration.
Professor Timothy Wangusa’s family led by his daughter Ayeta Anne Wangusa (at podium) deliver their remarks at the celebration.

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Computing & IS

US Embassy Engages Makerere on International Collaboration

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Prof. Wing- Kai addressing members of CoCIS as the Mak coordinator Dr. Ddumba Daniel notes down on 10th August 2022, Makerere University.

The Embassy of the United States of America in Uganda is coordinating a study Abroad engagement entitled, “Establishing University Partnerships to attract more US Scholars and Students”.

Prof. Wing-Kai  and Dr. Daniel Ddumba,  interact with CoCIS Ag. Deputy Principal  Dr. Peter Nabende.
Prof. Wing-Kai and Dr. Daniel Ddumba, interact with CoCIS Ag. Deputy Principal Dr. Peter Nabende.

The Study Abroad engagement which is sponsored by the US Department of State’s Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs will focus on holding institutional capacity of Ugandan Colleges and Universities to host more US students, interns, researchers and teachers.

Some of the CoCIS Heads of Department attending the meeting.
Some of the CoCIS Heads of Department attending the meeting.

The embassy hired the US  consultant Prof.  Wing-Kai, the Assistant Provost for Global Engagements and Senior International Officer at Bridge Water State University to conduct eight workshops  at Makerere University colleges.

The embassy engaged Dr. Daniel Ddumba, a Lecturer from the department of Geography, Geo-Informatics and Climatic Sciences to facilitate the execution of this program.

CoCIS staff and students pose for agroup photo with Prof. Wing-Kai after the meeting.
CoCIS staff and students pose for agroup photo with Prof. Wing-Kai after the meeting.

In the morning of  10th August 2022, Prof. Wing-Kai, was in the College of Computing and Information Sciences (CoCIS)  where he met  the Principals, Deans, Heads of Departments, scholars and students to understand the process of  global cooperation.

Prof. Wing-Kai said,  the meeting was used  as a channel to improve the  activities for international collaborations.

Dr. Daniel Ddumba, Dr. Engineer Bainomugisha (CoCIS) interact with Prof. Wing-Kai after the meeting.
Dr. Daniel Ddumba, Dr. Engineer Bainomugisha (CoCIS) interact with Prof. Wing-Kai after the meeting.

“What I found is that this college has productive exchanges with Europe and United States but there some people are not aware of these collaborations and these collaborations can be improved by providing funding for Ugandan students to go to the West for short term opportunities. I hope that my visit can encourage the US government and American universities to start working with this college and to provide more opportunities for professors and students”, Prof. Wing-Kai.

Some of the CoCIS graduate students attending the meeting.
Some of the CoCIS graduate students attending the meeting.

Following the COVID-19 Pandemic and its impacts on all sectors, Prof. Wing-Kai stressed that this was the time for the college and partners to rethink their structure for improving international collaboration.

A section of CoCIS staff attending the meeting with Prof. Wing-Kai.
A section of CoCIS staff attending the meeting with Prof. Wing-Kai.

“We are going to talk to the Principal whether there is going to be an international office and a coordinator to manage the collaborations with international entities and how to develop different strategies for prioritizing the partnerships so that they have clear goals and outcomes and try to make it sustainable for the future”, Prof. Wing- Kai pledged.

On the same day 10th August 2022 afternoon, Prof. Wing-Kai held a meeting with management, staff and students from the College of Humanities and Social Sciences (CHUSS).  Prof. Wing -Kai described the meeting especially with students who  formed  the majority as interesting.

Prof. Wing-Kai (R) speaking to CHUSS staff and students as the Principal's representative Dr. Jimmy Spire Ssentongo (L) listens.
Prof. Wing-Kai (R) speaking to CHUSS staff and students as the Principal’s representative Dr. Jimmy Spire Ssentongo (L) listens.

“ Most of the audience are undergraduate and some graduate students. I hear about their experiences. I want to encourage them to think  about having an international experience in future by trying to go abroad for short term and developing some international activities and to internationalize the curriculum on campus not just going abroad. It is easier to internationalise through connecting  with international community in Kampala and abroad  here physical and virtually”, Prof. Wing- Kai said.

Prof. Wing-Kai implored the university management to increase the capacity for internationalization so that Makerere can improve the infrastructure and   programs, and to tap into the United States experience in internationalization.

CHUSS staff and students pose for a group photo with Prof. Wing-Kai after the meeting.
CHUSS staff and students pose for a group photo with Prof. Wing-Kai after the meeting.

Some of the proposed initiatives by students include creating  internship platforms and streamlining scholarship to  cater for undergraduates,  streamlining  international coordination, facilitating online discussions between Western and African students and strengthening the office of the Dean of students to facilitate  academic exchanges.

CHUSS Student president Abdul Fatah (Standing) contributes to the discussion during the meeting.
CHUSS Student president Abdul Fatah (Standing) contributes to the discussion during the meeting.

Other initiatives to strengthen collaboration suggested include organizing the US-Makerere special events such as  competitions, workshop, annual exhibitions, camps, cultural performances that would provide opportunities to highlight international education as well as the  American, European , Chinese etc culture on campus.

Dr. Ivan Lukanda (L) and Dr. Ebila Florence (R) interact with Prof Wing-Kai and Dr. Daniel Ddumba after the meeting.
Dr. Ivan Lukanda (L) and Dr. Ebila Florence (R) interact with Prof Wing-Kai and Dr. Daniel Ddumba after the meeting.

Other proposals were the need to form the US-Mak Alumni association, organizing short visits for students and staff to and from Africa to see how programs are run, joint research and, forming a community of practice to share ideas and to network.

Prof. Wing-Kai speaking to CHUSS students and staff in the Multimedia/E-Learning Room, Level 4, Frank Kalimuzo Central Teaching Facility, Makerere University.
Prof. Wing-Kai speaking to CHUSS students and staff in the Multimedia/E-Learning Room, Level 4, Frank Kalimuzo Central Teaching Facility, Makerere University.

Other proposed initiatives include  promoting online education to expose students and staff to  best structures and expertise, promoting virtual conferences, joint publications and more student engagement of students outside the classroom through debates and clubs.

Jane Anyango is the Principal Communication Officer, CHUSS and CoCIS

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Humanities & Social Sciences

Sr. Prof. Dominica Dipio receives the SIGNIS-Africa Award of Excellence

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Sr. Professor Dominic Dipio of Makerere University in Uganda.

Reverand Sister Prof. Dominica Dipio, of the Department of Literature, College of Humanities and Social Sciences has received the SIGNIS-Africa Award of Excellence for Contributing to the Communication Apostolate in Africa.

Sr. Prof. Dipio was recognized during the premiere SIGNIS-Africa delegates Conference held in Kigali, Rwanda.

At the Kigali Delegates Conference held from July 11th -15th 2022, SIGNIS-Africa recognized, for the first time, individuals and organizations – Africans and non-Africans – who have, over the years, contributed to the vision and mission of SIGNIS-Africa, which is basically to enhance human communication and to provide a forum for people to speak out.

“I was identified as one of such persons. I have, since 2001, as a film student at the Pontifical Gregorian University (Rome), associated with the SIGNIS world; and in this capacity, I have not only participated in the organization’s conferences, but also represented it at several global film festivals as a juror. This experience has, over the years, helped me harness my juror experience; and this has been extremely useful in providing guidance for the young film industry in Uganda”, Sr. Prof. Dominic Dipio said.

SIGNIS stands for World Catholic Association for Communication. It is a Catholic lay movement that brings together communication professionals around the world, covering the entire gamut of the media: press, radio, television, cinema, video media education, internet and new technology.

It came into existence as a result of a merger between two Catholic Media organizations which until 2001, operated separately as the International Catholic Organization for Cinema and Audiovisual (OCIC) and the International Catholic Association for Radio and Television (Unda). Now, the two and the new media, all come under SIGNIS as the official body of media related affairs in the church’s apostolate.

SIGNIS is recognized by the Holy See as an International Organization of the Faithful (not the clergy). The word itself is a combination of ‘sign’ and ‘ignis’, a Latin word that means fire. The main objective of the organization is to use the media as an instrument of enhancing human and Gospel values in society.

Although it is a global network of communication professionals, SIGNIS is structured in continental segments for more effective management, thus SIGNIS-Africa.

Read more:

  1. https://mailchi.mp/a480e3a05399/african-synodality-issue-003-july
  2. https://www.vaticannews.va/en/africa/news/2022-07/signis-africa-pledges-to-embrace-the-synodal-way-in-its-structur.html

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72nd Graduation: Doctoral Citations – CHUSS

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Some of the PhD Graduands from CHUSS during the Fifth and final Session of the 72nd Graduation Ceremony of Makerere University on 27th May 2022.
AMPAIRE Anne
AMPAIRE Anne

AMPAIRE Anne
Career Stereotypes and Aspiration as Predictors of Students’ Independence in Career Choice at Education Transitional Levels in Uganda

Ms. AMPAIRE Anne examined the extent to which career stereotypes and aspirations predict students’ career choice at education transitional levels in Uganda. This was motivated by the continued challenges that impact on students’ independence in career choice and the extent to which career decisions are based on the available facts. This has led to students taking up careers that are not in line with their interests, value system, and skills, thereby compromising the outcome expectations. Overall, the results revealed that reliance on personal independence and career choice facts, is decreased by the prevailing career stereotypes, across the education transitional levels. This has resulted into an increase in the number of students who pursue careers that are inconsistent with their career aspirations and interests, and there is need for measures aimed at addressing those prevailing career stereotypes. The study was co-funded by myself and Makerere University and was supervised by Dr. Mayanja Kajumba and Prof. Anthony M. Mugagga.


ANTWIWAA Stella
ANTWIWAA Stella

ANTWIWAA Stella
The Representation of Women in Selected Plays of Euripides and Selected Ghanaian Playwrights

Ms. ANTWIWAA Stella employed feminist and postcolonial theories to interrogate the representation of women in selected classical Euripidean plays and selected Ghanaian playwrights to examine the ‘universalist’ view that the Classics are models for others to learn from. The research questions the hegemonic elevation of the Classical/Western values to examine African experiences. The study reveals that in terms of gender representations, the Classical Greek, through Euripides’ writings, does not provide examples for the Akan (Ghanaian/African) societies. The study recommends that African scholars need to adopt Afrocentric epistemology to examine African experiences in order to shift and balance the centres of knowledge production and circulation. Africa’s classics in history, art, myths, folktales and indigenous knowledge need to be foregrounded in scholarship to address the pedestal placement of the Western Classics as a yardstick to evaluate African artefacts. Granted the Classics continue to be valuable, scholars need to interrogate them when applied to different cultural experiences. This critical and comparative study challenges the ideology of the superiority of Western Classics over other cultures. This study was funded by Gerda Henkel Stiftung Foundation, and supervised by Prof. Dominica Dipio and Dr Danson Kahyana.


ARINAITWE Perpetua
ARINAITWE Perpetua

ARINAITWE Perpetua
Kiswahili at Crossroads: Cultural Politics and Language Policy in Uganda.

Ms. ARINAITWE Perpetua studied historical narratives of different language policies and factors that impacted Kiswahili growth across the different historical periods; the pre-colonial period (1840-1894); the colonial period (1894-1962); and the post-colonial period (1962-2019). A blend of three approaches to language policy and planning (LPP); the Historical-structural model, the Neo-classical Model and Language Management Theory (LMT). A narrative technique enabled the collection of both qualitative and quantitative data. Findings revealed that Kiswahili growth has been dependent on numerous language policies stretching from the pre, during and post-colonial epochs. Constant shift in cultural and political leadership meant that whoever held power determined the language policies that favoured their leadership ideology. The study was funded by the GERDA HENKEL STIFFTUNG and was supervised by Dr Saudah Namyalo and Dr Gumoshabe Gilbert.


ASIIMWE Stedia
ASIIMWE Stedia

ASIIMWE Stedia
Female survivors’ Experiences of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) and access to justice in Uganda

Ms. ASIIMWE Stedia investigated female survivors’ experiences of intimate partner violence (IPV) and access to justice in Uganda, with a focus on relationships involving male police officers. The study was carried out in Jinja police barracks in Eastern Uganda. Methodologically, qualitative approach was employed, using case study design. Findings indicate that female survivors of IPV experienced physical, sexual, economic and psychological violence. Factors that triggered IPV against women in police families included: shared accommodation, poorly managed transfers and daily deployments, alcoholism, low salaries, refusing women to work outside the barracks and work related stress. Access to justice by female survivors of IPV was constrained by alien referral pathways to justice, abusers’ possession of a weapon, long procedures, laxity by authority to punish fellow officers, sexual harassment, women’s lack of information about their rights and Government’s failure to decentralize some services. The study argues that the arm of the law is too short to reach civilian female survivors of IPV, because the abusers are at the same time the vehicles through which justice is supposed to be delivered. The study recommends that police management should construct more houses for officers, include a module on Gender based violence in police training syllabus and use mult-professional teams to handle IPV cases. The study was funded by Makerere-Sweden Bilateral Research Program, and was supervised by Dr. Victoria Flavia Namuggala and Dr. Ruth Nsibirano.


ATWAGALA Donnah
ATWAGALA Donnah

ATWAGALA Donnah
A Comparative Analysis of Land ownership and Land conflicts in post-conflict areas of Luwero and Amuru Districts, Uganda: A Gender Perspective

Ms. ATWAGALA Donnah analysed the effects of landownership and land conflicts on gender perspectives in post-conflict areas of Luwero and Amuru Districts in Uganda. The findings show that the nature and causes of land conflicts have evolved, transforming from being local to becoming international. Actors and conflicts have become more sophisticated and complex to identify and analyse, respectively. The study recommends adopting the right-based, gender and conflict-sensitive land acquisition, ownership and management framework that will ensure equitable land acquisition, access and use by all stakeholders. This study was supervised by Dr. Paddy Musana and Assoc. Prof. Consolata Kabonesa.


BALIKOOWA Richard
BALIKOOWA Richard

BALIKOOWA Richard
A Sociocultural Exploration of Children’s Experiences and Perspectives on Gender-based Violence in Primary Schools in Busoga Sub-region, Uganda

Mr. BALIKOOWA Richard explored the experiences and perspectives of primary school children regarding gender-based violence in and around schools and its impact on their schooling; in Uganda’s Busoga sub-region. Using a sociocultural approach, Balikoowa adopted a multimethod design through which he involved 450 male and female school children from 10 to 14 years in participatory visual activities; including draw-and-talk, child-friendly focus group conversations, in-depth interviews; as well as the eclectic administration of a survey tool. Children acknowledged experiencing and/or witnessing gender-based violence in and around their schools. They also disclosed that gender-biased factors associated with school setup and gender-based violence immensely negatively affected their motivation to engage in school activities. However, children’s greatest nervousness and related impact on their schooling was attributed to the unresponsiveness and unempathetic attitude by those around them. The study recommended that stakeholders in children’s schooling should allow them reveal their challenges and also pay concerted attention to them as key participants in their development and schooling. The study was funded by the Andrew W. Mellon and was supervised by Assoc. Prof. Julius Fred Kikooma and Dr. David Onen.


FEDEO Ignas
FEDEO Ignas

FEDEO Ignas
Myth and Mythmaking in the Narratives about Mwalimu Julius Nyerere among the Banyakyusa

Mr. FEDEO Ignas studied the recreation of Nyerere’s personal life and political career in Banyakyusa myths. The study offers an alternative understanding of Nyerere’s life and history as perceived by local people. Using oral history interviews and content analysis, Banyakyusa myths which carry their culture, voices, beliefs, and perceptions of Nyerere were recorded. The myths were interpreted based on Banyakyusa traditional beliefs and their life experiences. The findings revealed that Banyakyusa believe that Nyerere was endowed with immerse supernatural and mystical powers which helped him to implement his presidential duties successfully and protect himself and the Tanzanian people. The study established the Banyakyusa belief that Nyerere’s mystical powers greatly account for the prominence of his ideas and the reverence accorded to him in Tanzania, Africa and the world at large. The study will promote preservation of Banyakyusa and other Africans oral materials especially myths which carry beliefs and perceptions of local people. This study was funded by Gerda-Henkel Stiftung Foundation and supervised by Prof Abasi Kiyimba and Dr. Benge Okot.


KATURAMU Alex
Land, social Change and the lives of nomadic pastoralists in Western Uganda since 1950

Mr. KATURAMU Alex examined the historical proliferation of nomadic pastoralists focusing on the issues of land and social change since 1950. In the results, seasonal movements culminated into land conflicts among pastoralists and farmers. The land conflicts were exacerbated by intensity of population in the cattle corridor. The study shows that pastoralists remain one of the secors that significantly contribute to Uganda’s Gross Domestic Product, hence deserving resource investiments to improve the livelihoods of herders. This study was supervised by Dr. Simon Peter Rutabajuuka and Dr. Charlottee Karungu Mafumbo.


KIGEMBE Elmerek
KIGEMBE Elmerek

KIGEMBE Elmerek
Challenges of Strategic Plan Implementation in the North Western Diocese: Evangelical Lutheran Church in Tanzania

Rev. KIGEMBE Elmereck investigated the challenges that limited strategic plan implementation in the North Western Diocese of the Evangelical Lutheran church in Tanzania. The study identified Improper resource allocation, limited knowledge of implementers, un-conducive working conditions, lack of clear targets and changes in Government policies as negative actors in strategic plan implementation. For the church to effectively implement its strategic plan objectives so as to deliver God’s Mission, the study recommended strategic mobilization, monitoring and allocation of resources; integration of training in the strategic plan implementation processes; enhancement of working conditions; integration of clear targets in action plans and regular review of strategic plan instruments to accommodate changes in the government policy. The study was funded by the United Evangelical Mission (UEM) and supervised by Dr. Patrick Mangeni and Dr. Veneranda Mbabazi.


KIRIGGWAJJO Anatole
KIRIGGWAJJO Anatole

KIRIGGWAJJO Anatole
The Tonology of Lunyala Nouns, Noun Phrases and Verbs

Mr. KIRIGGWAJJO Anatole investigated the tonology of Lunyala one of Uganda’s minority languages mainly spoken in the district of Kayunga. He argues that although the tone system of Bantu languages has attracted a lot of attention in the last decade, minority languages have been neglected making such languages endangered. His study found out that Lunyala has a privative tone system with the High tone marked underlying while both the underlying and surface tones are borne by moras in a one-to-one correspondence. Further the tone distribution over the moras is determined by tonal processes for example; High and Low tone spreading, Obligatory contour Principle and Tonal polarity among others. He underscores the usefulness of the study in compiling Lunyala online-talking dictionaries and developing teaching and learning materials in Lunyala. This study was funded by Volkswagen Foundation and was supervised by Dr. Saudah Namyalo.


IMOKOLA John Baptist
IMOKOLA John Baptist

IMOKOLA John Baptist
Television Programming Regulation: Examining the Policy Implementation of Local Content Quotas in Uganda

Mr. IMOKOLA John Baptist examined the implementation of television local content quotas policy in Uganda. Five years after television local content quotas were implemented in 2014, no known comprehensive assessment had been done on uptake by television stations, and how the is understood by the different stakeholders. The study analyzed the perspectives of different stakeholders, opportunities from the local content quotas and the challenges affecting implementation. Using key informant interviews, focus group discussions and document analysis, the study found that Uganda Communications Commission, the television stations, the local content producers and the audience had reacted differently towards the policy. Implementation has seen increased production, acquisition, adaptation and airing of Ugandan content for television. Although there are opportunities created by the policy, achievement of these are bedeviled structural, conceptual, economic and political challenges affecting effective implementation. The study proposed a new definition of local content, and recommends a consultative process in the formulation and implementation of broadcast policies. This study was funded by Andrew Mellon CHUSS Fellowship and supervised by Prof. Goretti Linda Nassanga and Dr. Brian Semujju.


KYOMUHENDO Marjorie Niyitegeka
KYOMUHENDO Marjorie Niyitegeka

KYOMUHENDO Marjorie Niyitegeka
Family Planning Communication in Uganda: An Interrogation of Media Reporting, Communication Campaigns and Audience Perspectives

Ms. KYOMUHENDO Marjorie Niyitegeka’s study was motivated by the constant high awareness and low use of contraceptives by most women and men of reproductive age in Uganda. She thus examined the framing of family planning information in selected media stories and health communication campaigns. She also explored how audience members targeted by the campaigns interpreted family planning information. Her study found deficiencies in family planning communication occasioned by shallow media reporting and information transmission approaches that disregarded the audience’s information needs and contextual factors. She recommends that the Ministry of Health and partners implement a harmonised communication strategy that is audience-centred and responsive to the emerging information needs and socio-ecological contexts of particular audience segments. She further urges Uganda’s media to practise more enterprise and interpretive journalism in reporting family planning to amplify its significance to the public. The study was co-funded by CARTA and Makerere University, and was supervised by Prof.Goretti L. Nassanga and Prof. Anne R. Katahoire.


LUGWIRI Okombo Patrick
LUGWIRI Okombo Patrick

LUGWIRI Okombo Patrick
A citizen Sociolinguistics Appraisal of Kiswahili as a Tool for Social Integration in the East African Community

Mr. LUGWIRI Okombo Patrick employed the Citizen Sociolinguistics model to explore language-based decisions about Kiswahili among ordinary citizens in the East African Community, specifically, in Busia and Namanga border towns. Lugwiri’s study was motivated by Article 137(2) of the EAC Treaty (1999) which provides for the promotion of Kiswahili as a lingua franca of the Community. Using ethnographic methods, the study examined the patterns and extent of the use of Kiswahili, the nature of Kiswahili used, and citizens perceptions and attitudes to Kiswahili. The study found that Kiswahili is construed, constructed and appropriated differently by different citizens in different domains and spaces, and therefore, a highly varied language. While Kiswahili has the potential of a common language of communication and a tool for social integration in the EAC, issues of varieties and labels, contact and conflict between varieties, status and prestige, perceptions and attitudes, national and social identity, and linguistic power struggles impact negatively on this potential. The study recommended a shift in approach to Kiswahili in the EAC from the ‘top-down’ policies to ‘bottom-up’ or practice-based policies that take into account participation of ordinary citizens as makers and shapers of language policies. The study was funded by Gerda Henkel Fellowship and supervised by Dr Merit Kabugo and Dr Florence Bayiga.


MUDONDO Constance
MUDONDO Constance

MUDONDO Constance
Land Conflicts and Livelihoods of People Utilising Namatala Wetland in Eastern Uganda

Ms. MUDONDO Constance examined how land conflicts shape livelihoods of people. Using Namatala Wetland in Eastern Uganda as a case, she examined the conflict dimensions and drivers, land use, and conflict management mechanisms. She found that increasing demand for moist farm land shape conflict dimensions leading to cleavage formation based on class, ethnicity, and location. The emergent quests for territorial control and inequality result in violence, which hinders optimal use of land and diminishes wetland users’ capitals. Although formal conflict management strategies have been tried, they were largely protectionist and divisive, reinforcing feelings of relative deprivation and latent hostilities. Consequently, the wetland users have resorted to informal coping mechanisms like social-networks that act as collective labour, financial safety valves and buffers against attacks. She argues that alleviating the effects of land conflicts requires shifting from structural models to locally bred conflict management systems. The study was funded by SIDA and supervised by Dr. Robert Kabumbuli and Dr. Dauda Waiswa Batega.


MUGENYI Jonathan
MUGENYI Jonathan

MUGENYI Jonathan
Singing Politics: Popular Music, Popular Politics and Contingencies of Protest in NRM’s Uganda

Mr. MUGENYI Jonathan examined the deployment of musical expression in the practice of state politics under Uganda’s National Resistance Movement. On the one hand, he investigated the direct and implied ways by which the NRM deploys musical expression as a tool of political mobilisation and legitimization while on the other hand, he examined ways by which the Ugandan society uses musical expression to create alternatives ways of engaging with NRM politics. Expanding the Foucauldian theory of power, Mugenyi argues that musical expression is a conduit of state power that percolates into society and it is the same conduit that returns to the state to challenge its power as contingencies of protest. This study was funded under Makerere Institute of Social Research’s Interdisciplinary MPhil/PhD and was supervised by Prof. Mahmood Mamdani.


MWANIKA Kassim
MWANIKA Kassim

MWANIKA Kassim
Commercial Sugarcane Farming and Rural Youth Livelihoods in Eastern Uganda

Mr. MWANIKA Kassim examined the implications of commercial farming on a vulnerable population. Focusing on sugarcane farming and youth livelihoods in Eastern Uganda, he found that sugarcane farming has a suboptimal impact on youth livelihoods in Busoga sub-region. Due to limited requisite resources, the youth constitute the bulk of sugarcane labour force and their benefits from the industry are limited to wage earnings. He argues that commercial sugarcane farming is an enclave for wealthy groups, and that youth are incorporated into circuits of capital accumulation where they are exploited by employers. The process is exacerbated by lack of labour regulations and sugarcane price volatility, which undermine the trickle-down effect of sugarcane farming on youth livelihoods. Enhancing outcomes from sugarcane farming requires addressing structural traps embedded in capitalist large-scale farming. The study was funded by SIDA and supervised by Assoc. Prof. Andrew Ellias State, Prof. Atekyereza Peter and Assoc. Prof. Torun Österberg.


NAKABO Seruga Robinah
NAKABO Seruga Robinah

NAKABO Seruga Robinah
Followership and Women’s Empowerment for Sustainable Development: A Case of the Women in the National Association of Women’s Organisations in Uganda

Ms. NAKABO Seruga Robinah investigated followership and women’s empowerment for sustainable development, taking the case of the women in NAWOU. After in-depth interviews, findings showed that followership was generally a taken for granted concept. Respondents perceived followership as a cooperative venture, retrospection on past experiences, as a detour, seeking to stabilise or destabilise the status quo, identifying preferred values, and mentorship. Most voices reiterated that generally, many women exhibited perpetual and unconscious followership tendencies even when other alternatives were available; with fear as the main causal condition. However, women’s followership of NAWOU was found to be pragmatic and conscious with the implication of possible empowerment; intervened by education, family ties, and financial situations. The conclusion was, depending on personal characteristics, perception of empowerment and the typology of followership adopted, women could gain empowerment for sustainable development. The recommendation is that NAWOU, the government, academic institutions, and similar organizations reconsider the concept of followership and its implications on empowerment. The study was supervised by Assoc Prof. Godfrey Assimwe, and Dr. Robert S. Esiruku


NAKALYOWA Deborah
NAKALYOWA Deborah

NAKALYOWA Deborah
Intimate Partner Violence and Masculinities: Experiences of Baganda male “survivors” in Masaka District, Uganda

Ms. NAKALYOWA Deborah examined, through a qualitative methodology, the lived experiences of men who were subjected to Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) by their female intimate partners in heterosexual relationships, including forms/types in which the IPV manifested, and how it affected the masculine identities of the male victims. Findings revealed that they were subjected to psychological/emotional violence, in addition to physical aggression and sexual abuse in the contexts of Intimate Terrorism, Situational Couple Violence and Mutual Violent Control. While the importance of maintaining an appropriate sense of masculinity underpinned their narratives, the male victims described feeling shame and embarrassment for not having met the dominant cultural expectations surrounding masculinity, consequently affecting their emotional and physical well-being. However, the majority of men were hesitant to seek help after victimization, for fear of ridicule, emasculation and being cast as the perpetrators. Therefore, there is need for more research and advocacy to enhance recognition and public awareness about the plight of male victims, review of laws/policies aimed at combating IPV in intimate relationships to be more gender-inclusive, as well as establish victim service support sources for all IPV victims, regardless of gender. The study was funded by SIDA and supervised by Dr. Evelyn Lutwama-Rukundo and Assoc. Prof. Consolata Kabonesa


NANSAMBA Joyce
NANSAMBA Joyce

NANSAMBA Joyce
Why They Stay: A socio-cultural Reconstruction of Academics’ Retention in Uganda’s Public Universities.

Ms. NANSAMBA Joyce explains why Academics stay working in Uganda’s Public Universities despite unappealing working conditions. Recognizing that staff retention is not exclusively about institutional frameworks and individually situated explanations, the study underscores the role of historical, social and cultural contexts in explaining retention. A narrative analysis of the academics’ stories revealed that the meaning academics attach to their professional identity, the social relations from engaged scholarship and the otherness from external prestige explain their retention. The study was a departure from conventional thinking that attractive pay and benefits, satisfactory terms of service, good working conditions among others explain retention. It was a novel step to studying retention as a social construction from the perspective of Academics’ own experiences. The study was funded by Makerere University and supervised by Assoc Prof. Julius Kikooma and Assoc Prof. Umar Kakumba.


NIRINGIYIMANA Julius
NIRINGIYIMANA Julius

NIRINGIYIMANA Julius
Oil Politics and Land Conflicts in the Albertine Region, Uganda

Mr. NIRINGIYIMANA Julius investigated how oil politics was influencing the changing nature of land conflicts in the Albertine region of Uganda. The study discovered that though the Ugandan government had been engaging in protracted negotiations with multinational oil corporations in an effort to protect the national interests, the process instead got plagued by land conflicts and dispossession of citizens from their land. It established that the interests of the actors conflicted and led to the politicization of oil governance. Consequently, the government was made to adjust its position to accommodate the interests of multinational oil corporations while other opportunistic interests, such as land speculators also took advantage. These actions made the affected persons to lose their land rights which invoked and intensified land conflicts in form of Polanyi’s ‘countermovement’ and adversely affected people’s livelihoods. The study concluded that where neoliberal capitalism interfaces with an oil-producing developing country, citizens face dispossession of land and other rights, and where there are pre-existing land conflicts, the politicisation of oil intensifies them and produces new ones. The study recommends that the Ugandan state should re-assert its interests and obligations to protect people’s land rights and make multinational oil corporations to adhere to internationally established benchmarks such as fair compensation. This study was funded by SIDA and supervised by Prof Muhumuza William and Prof Murindwa Rutanga.


TUNANUKYE Nicholas
TUNANUKYE Nicholas

TUNANUKYE Nicholas
A History of Migrancy, Nativism, and Citizenship in Uganda, 1894-1995: A case of South and Western Uganda

Mr. TUNANUKYE Nicholas examined the relationship between migrations, identity formations and citizenship in Uganda, 1894-1995 using migration experiences of Bakiga and Banyankole into Buganda, and Bakiga into Bunyoro. Using historical research methods which included analysis of documents, oral narratives and archival sources, the study established that, whereas migration had taken place in the region of pre-Uganda, colonial rule encouraged unprecedented internal migration in Uganda. The new socio-economic order brought about by the colonial state opened the way for free movement in the protectorate across ethnic boundaries. There were two main reasons for this accelerated migration: migrant labour and search for land. The migration of Banyankole and Bakiga from southwestern region of Uganda to Buganda in the 1930s, 1940s into 1960s was largely in response to the former, while the migration of the Bakiga into Bunyoro and Toro regions during the 1950s and 1960s was in response to latter. The study also established that there were complex interactions between the migrating and receiving communities. One major complexity lay in the attitude of nativism, expressed in subtle ways. Nativism gave rise to two kinds of citizenship consciousness: the Local Citizenship bestowed by membership to an ancestral community inhabiting a particular region and National Citizenship bestowed by the statutes of the Ugandan state. The study was funded by The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation and was supervised by Dr. Simon Peter Rutabajuuka and Dr. Deo Nzarwa Katono.


WAMAMELA Nixon
WAMAMELA Nixon

WAMAMELA Nixon
A critique of Constitutional making and amendment in Uganda with Reference to the 1967 &1995 Constitution

Mr. WAMAMELA Nixon conducted an ethical critique of constitutional making and amendment in Uganda with specific reference to the 1967 and 1995 constitutions. The study established that the constitutional processes were seemingly legitimate, yet, self-interest tendencies overrode common interest, hence, the resultant controversies such as lack of consensus among members of parliament, questionable declaration of state of emergency, controversial consultations, resultant scuffles and violent scenes in parliament. It was also established that ideals of constitutional democracy and legislative ethics were lacking. To mitigate the above challenges, an ethical framework for constitutional making and amendment processes should be put into account. Such a framework should include referenda, benchmarking and a national consensus on ethical principles, declaration of conflict of interest by the incumbents and other possible beneficiaries. These are possible through creation of ethics review committee within parliament. The study was funded by Andrew W. Mellon Foundation and supervised by Prof. Archangel Rukooko Byaruhanga and Dr. Paul Matthias Shimiyu.


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