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Veterinary & Biosecurity

Assoc. Prof. Lawrence Mugisha hailed for spearheading Animal Ethics in Research & Teaching

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Assoc. Prof. Lawrence Mugisha from the College of Veterinary Medicine, Animal Resources and Bio Security (CoVAB) has been commended for taking a lead role in the development of the National Guidelines for use of animals in research and teaching and the establishment of the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC).

This was during a workshop held at CoVAB on 9th March 2022 to launch accreditation process of the School of Veterinary and Animal Resources (SVAR) Institutional Animal Care and use Committee (SVAR IACUC).

Associate Prof Lawrence Mugisha who is the current Chairperson of the Institutional Animal care and use committee (IACUC) said the process of establishing the committee started in 2017 and that the guidelines provided that for it to be accredited, it must have a fully constituted and trained membership, with a well-established secretariat in a functional office run by a full time administrator.

Associate Prof Lawrence Mugisha.

He said the purpose of the forum was to review the present form of the Institutional Animal care and use committee (IACUC), the standard operating procedures (SOPS) in preparation for accreditation that was due in April 2022.

While giving reference to the Animal Cruelty Act 1957, which was operating without guidelines, Prof. Mugisha noted that these were established to promote the welfare of animals and promote proper use of animals in research and teaching. “Our national regulation for use of animal in research and teaching is in line with several international regulations and guidelines. For example, World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), The Council for International Organisation for Medical Sciences (CIOMS) and The International Council Laboratory Animal Sciences (ICLAS)  which states that animals should be used only when necessary and only when their use is scientifically and ethically justified.

He said the principles of the 3Rs-Replacement, Reduction and Refinement should be incorporated into the design and conduct of scientific and or educational activities that involve animals. In addition, animals selected for the research should be suitable for the purpose and of an appropriate species and genetic background to ensure scientific validity and reproducibility, he explained.

Prof. Henry Mwanaki Alinaitwe, Ag. Deputy Vice Chancellor Finance and Administration

The Vice Chancellor Makerere University Prof. Barnabas Nawangwe who was represented at the event by Prof. Henry Mwanaki Alinaitwe, Ag. Deputy Vice Chancellor Finance and Administration congratulated CoVAB for the initiative. He said as a research led University, it was imperative that the guidelines were in place and called upon the Uganda National Council for Science and Technology to regularly make consultations with Makerere University bearing on its mantra of being research centred.   He commended the leadership of CoVAB for making good use of the MAK RIF funds part of which supported the process through the study entitled; Strengthening Institutional Capacity for Ethical conduct of Research involving Animals (ICEcoRIA).

The Assistant Executive Secretary, Uganda National Council for Science and Technology (UNCST) Ms. Hellen Opolot has hailed Prof. Mugisha who as the Chairperson was instrumental in leading a multidisciplinary group of members to design The National Guidelines for Use of Animals in research and teaching.  She said the Uganda National Council for Science and Technology (UNCST) launched the guidelines on the 16th of September 2021, an  event presided over by the Minister Hon. Frank Tumwebaze, Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Industry and Fisheries.  She said the guidelines now provide a framework for scientists, institutional animal care and use Committees, facility managers, sponsors, funders ,teaching institutions and animal care staff to consider while planning to use animals in research and teaching’ explained Miss Opolot of  UNCST.

Ms. Hellen Opolot Assistant Executive Secretary, Uganda National Council for Science and Technology.

For national regulatory oversight in the use of animals in research and teaching, Miss Opolot   noted that UNCST has powers to accredit specialized committees and research councils and that section 3 of The National Guidelines for Use of Animals in research and teaching Act stipulates that IACUCs are established by institutions owning and caring for animals used for purposes of research and teaching.   She highlighted the key requirements for the establishment of IACUCs that included appointment of the IACUC members and IACUC administrator by the head of the institution or his/her designee. Other requirements include well established operational offices and board meeting space, well written Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) and assurance of financing mechanism for the committee.

Prof. Norbert Frank Mwiine the College Principal extended his appreciation to Uganda National Council for Science and Technology for partnering with Makerere University to promote quality research and animal use. He equally thanked Prof Mugisha for his leadership in research and the promotion of animal ethics nationally and internationally.  He highlighted the importance of Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee and established National guidelines in promoting the quality research and harmonized animal use in line with international standards.

Prof. Frank Mwiine Principal COVAB

He implored staff in the college to acquit themselves with provisions of the guidelines and operations of the IACUC in order to follow the due process of protocol to obtain all approvals required to undertake research using animals.   He pledged commitment towards supporting the operations of committee in the college and the university as a whole.

Prof. Robert Tweyongyere, Dean of School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Resources (SVAR) stressed the importance of regulation in the use of animals in research and teaching adding that the guidelines were necessary and timely for practice purposes. “I would like  to  thank Uganda National Council for Science and Technology for  embracing the idea of having an animal  research and teaching committee and taking it forward to national level’.  Prof.  Tweyongyere  commended the Makerere University Research and Innovations Fund (Mak-RIF) for funding animal research and teaching at the School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Resources.

The Workshop attracted over 30 participants from government institutions, academia and regulatory agencies among others. The guidelines for animal research and teaching can be accessed on   www.uncst.org

Written by Harriet Musinguzi and Odoi Joseph.

Veterinary & Biosecurity

Stakeholders to take on Electronic Rabies Surveillance using a One Health Approach in the control of Rabies

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Stakeholders pose for a group photo at the Centre for Biosecurity and Global Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, Animal Resources and Biosecurity (CoVAB), Makerere University. Kampala, Uganda, East Africa.

Stakeholders in the Rabies Elimination project in Uganda (eRabies) have intensified efforts aimed at the use of electronic Rabies Surveillance using a One Health approach in the efforts towards elimination of rabies in Uganda.

A two-day workshop was convened at the College of Veterinary Medicine, Animal Resources and Biosecurity (CoVAB), Makerere University from 28th-29th August 2023, during which the stakeholders deliberated on a number of proposals for the best applicable surveillance tools to address One Health concerns in the effort towards the elimination of Rabies.

Prof. Clovice Kankya, Head of Department, Biosecurity, Ecosystems and Veterinary Public Health at CoVAB. Centre for Biosecurity and Global Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, Animal Resources and Biosecurity (CoVAB), Makerere University, Kampala Uganda. East Africa.
Prof. Clovice Kankya, Head of Department, Biosecurity, Ecosystems and Veterinary Public Health at CoVAB.

‘The purpose of the meeting is to hear from various actors and see what works for us, to enable us collect information and have it shared in a sustained way with One Health as a key component’ said Prof. Clovice Kankya, the Head, Department of Biosecurity, Ecosystems and Veterinary Public Health at CoVAB, at the start of the meeting held in the Centre for Biosecurity and Global Health.

Kankya noted that with one year of implementation to date, the eRabies project was progressing well drawing a lot of support from the implementing local Governments of Kyegegwa, Soroti and Kampala Capital City Authority that spearhead the community engagements and other related activities. He said the graduate fellows from the Ministry of Health and Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Industry and Fisheries supported by the project were also on schedule.

He said Rabies is a global challenge being a zoonotic disease affecting the entire world more so here in Africa where there is close interaction between the wild animals and the human population.  The Uganda Wildlife Authority, he said, was brought on board specifically Queen Elizabeth National Park to address some of the challenges affecting people drawing from the wild animals.

Prof. James Acai-Okwee, Deputy Principal CoVAB officiated at the opening. Centre for Biosecurity and Global Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, Animal Resources and Biosecurity (CoVAB), Makerere University, Kampala Uganda. East Africa.
Prof. James Acai-Okwee, Deputy Principal CoVAB officiated at the opening.

The Deputy Principal CoVAB, Prof. James Acai Okwee, in his opening remarks noted through the eRabies project, Makerere University and the host CoVAB were consolidating efforts towards the control of rabies in Uganda. ‘In as much as Rabies is a killer 100%, it is also preventable 100%’ observed Prof. Acai, adding that Makerere University and CoVAB specifically have been involved in such efforts through filed activities, vaccinations and animal welfare programs aimed at the control of rabies.  He said through research, such efforts were to be intensified from a scientifically informed point of view.

Prof. Sonja Hartnack, from the Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich gives the background to the project. Centre for Biosecurity and Global Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, Animal Resources and Biosecurity (CoVAB), Makerere University, Kampala Uganda. East Africa.
Prof. Sonja Hartnack, from the Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich gives the background to the project.

Prof. Sonja Hartnack, from the Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, one of the partners gave an overview of the project.  She said the four-year project has seven different work packages while emphasizing that presently, the stakeholders were addressing work package one, that entails Surveillance systems and integrated bite case management.  She noted that the communities were crucial in the rabies control efforts and specifically in identifying the barriers for rabies control through research interventions and the development of educational materials for awareness creation.

She made reference to the World organization for Animal Health (WOAH) recommended practices that points out that dog owners are clearly identified as one way through which the barriers to dog vaccination can be addressed in the communities and emphasized responsible dog ownership.

Participants engage in group work. Centre for Biosecurity and Global Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, Animal Resources and Biosecurity (CoVAB), Makerere University, Kampala Uganda. East Africa.
Participants engage in group work.

She said it was important to assess which vaccinations approaches are most successful in terms of vaccination coverage, whether there were static points vaccinations, or linked to institutions like Schools or other Veterinary activities or even human health related activities. She said through quantitative and qualitative research, the eRabies project was set to establish what works.  She also pointed out the need to increase the laboratory capacity at regional levels as well as taking on rapid tests in the field.

Prof. Sonja Hartnack said the deliberations in the meeting were to inform the efforts towards having an integrated bite case management (IBCM) system by looking at different systems, picking out key data elements, reviewing the challenges of the existing processes for a proper One Health approach.

Dr.  Andrew Kambugu, Director, Infectious Disease Institute (IDI) affirms IDI’s support to the project. Centre for Biosecurity and Global Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, Animal Resources and Biosecurity (CoVAB), Makerere University, Kampala Uganda. East Africa.
Dr. Andrew Kambugu, Director, Infectious Disease Institute (IDI) affirms IDI’s support to the project.

Dr.  Andrew Kambugu, Director, Infectious Disease Institute (IDI) one of the key partners in the eRabies project extended appreciation to the Swiss Government and the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF) for the grant that is supporting the implementation of the activities.  He referred to COVID-19, a Zoonotic disease that affected many people as having come from the contact between animals and humans.  He said the model that would come out of the meeting was to be relevant to many.  He emphasized the need for increased collaboration between different agencies in Africa, where he noted that many were working in silos.  He affirmed that IDI was to give all relevant support needed in the eRabies project.

The deliberations in the workshop shared experiences from varied stakeholders that included the Infectious Diseases Institute experiences of Rabies Surveillance in West Nile region, the respective implementing Local Governments, Ministry of Health and Ministry of Agriculture Animal Industry and Fisheries.

Group work presentations by participants. Centre for Biosecurity and Global Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, Animal Resources and Biosecurity (CoVAB), Makerere University, Kampala Uganda. East Africa.
Group work presentations by participants.

Participants identified some of the challenges experienced in timely dog bites reporting that need to be addressed in the surveillance.  They included late reporting by the victims, failure to capture data from the private Veterinary Medicine practitioners that handle a number of cases in the communities, omission of the wildlife Veterinarians in the reporting system and the little interaction between the Human Health practitioners and the Veterinarians, coupled with the limited data sharing avenues.

Participants in a plenary session. Centre for Biosecurity and Global Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, Animal Resources and Biosecurity (CoVAB), Makerere University, Kampala Uganda. East Africa.
Participants in a plenary session.

The eRabies project is implemented by Makerere University College of Veterinary Medicine, Animal Resources and Biosecurity (CoVAB), Infectious Diseases Institute (IDI) in collaboration with the Vetsuisse Faculties, Universities of Bern and Zurich from Switzerland. It is contributing to efforts towards elimination of Rabies by 2030.

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Veterinary & Biosecurity

UK-based Centre for Environment, Fisheries & Aquaculture Science (Cefas) seeks collaboration with CoVAB in Aquatic Animal Health

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Seated Right-Left: Prof. Robert Tweyongyere, Dr. Richard Paley, Mr. Andrew Wokorac Joseph, Dr. John Walakira and another official with staff and students (standing) after the meeting on 8th August 2023, CoVAB, Makerere University. Kampala Uganda, East Africa.

The College of Veterinary Medicine, Animal Resources and Biosecurity on 8th August 2023, hosted a team from the Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science, an executive agency for the UK Government’s Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs.

Dr. Richard Paley and Mr. Andrew Wokorac Joseph of the Environment and Animal Health group were in the College courtesy of Dr. John Walakira from the National Agricultural Research Organization (NARO).  Their visit is aimed at forging collaboration and support diagnostic and research activities pertaining to aquatic animal health.

Left to Right: Prof. Robert Tweyongyere, Dean SVAR, Assoc. Prof. Jesca L Nakavuma, Dr. Claire M. Mugasa, Dean SBLS, Dr. David Kahwa and Dr. John Walakira. College of Veterinary Medicine, Animal Resources and Biosecurity (CoVAB), Makerere University, Kampala Uganda, East Africa.
Left to Right: Prof. Robert Tweyongyere, Dean SVAR, Assoc. Prof. Jesca L Nakavuma, Dr. Claire M. Mugasa, Dean SBLS, Dr. David Kahwa and Dr. John Walakira.

The team was welcome to the College by the Principal, Prof. Frank Nobert Mwiine, represented by the Dean, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Resources, Prof. Robert Tweyongyere. While extending   appreciation for the upcoming collaboration, the Principal noted that Uganda is one of the main producers of fisheries products in Sub-Saharan Africa and it is the second largest foreign exchange earner for Uganda. He said the interventions in the collaboration were pertinent given the declining production that is also negatively affecting national and household income and food security which is being addressed by the Government of Uganda through promotion of aquaculture.

Prof. Mwiine highlighted some of the challenges affecting aquaculture that include lack of quality feed and seed as well as technical expertise. He said although fish diseases are yet to be considered a major challenge, with the advances in aquaculture, there is bound to be frequent disease outbreaks. He said anti-microbial resistance and drug residues were inevitable because in the process of managing fish disease, antibiotics are administered. Further he pointed out the limited knowledge and skills in fish health management which falls in the docket of veterinaries but few are well equipped with the requisite skills and knowledge.

He made reference to Makerere University’s vision of innovative teaching, learning and services responsive to national and global needs, and the strategic direction of enhancing and strengthening partnerships with industry, the community through multiple collaborations with universities and other research institutions regionally and globally.

The meeting between CoVAB and Cefas in session. College of Veterinary Medicine, Animal Resources and Biosecurity (CoVAB), Makerere University, Kampala Uganda, East Africa.
The meeting between CoVAB and Cefas in session.

The Principal informed the team that Makerere University offers comprehensive training programs in aquaculture, fisheries production and aquatic animal health at CoVAB and the College of Natural Sciences (CoNAS). He said at CoVAB, research in aquatic animal health has expanded to cover core areas of biosecurity and ecosystem health following the one health approach. He emphasized the need for increased collaborative ties and networks with the private sector, research institutions, universities and technical agencies, working closely with the fish farmers.

He explained that at CoVAB, the two Schools synergistically offer training across the graduate and undergraduate programs. He highlighted some of the fisheries/aquaculture  research projects ongoing that include Safe Fish that is investigating phages as alternatives to antibiotic use in fish management; Novel Feeds, that is developing a feed formulation for fish larvae; Bioconversion of Industrial waste products in Nile perch , Artificial Intelligence system to balance water quality and feed; Capacity Building in aquatic animal health and environmental health as well as probiotics for use on Tilapia and Nile Perch farms.

NARO’s Dr. John Walakira (Right) talks about the partnership with CoVAB. College of Veterinary Medicine, Animal Resources and Biosecurity (CoVAB), Makerere University, Kampala Uganda, East Africa.
NARO’s Dr. John Walakira (Right) talks about the partnership with CoVAB.

Dr. John Walakira from the National Agricultural Research Organization (NARO) noted that there was potential for a long-term relationship between CoVAB and NARO and urged the college to identify gaps that need to be filled in future in the aquaculture industry.  He said the team was in the college to establish what it can do in the industry, noting that issues of diseases are recurrent and a preserve of the veterinarians.  He noted that aquaculture animal health was growing very fast with over 2.5 billion fingerlings in the region and in the process, diseases are on the increase.

He said the team from Cefas was in the college to establish what was on ground for example the graduate courses as well as training for the practitioners in the industry. He said Africa has been without aquaculture related diseases but now they are getting reported and veterinarians called to take up the challenge. Because of the rich resources in Uganda, it’s time to train practitioners, he said, and that Makerere University especially CoVAB is a focal point especially in dealing with such diseases.

Right-Left: Dr. Richard Paley flanked by Mr. Andrew Wokorac Joseph. College of Veterinary Medicine, Animal Resources and Biosecurity (CoVAB), Makerere University, Kampala Uganda, East Africa.
Right-Left: Dr. Richard Paley flanked by Mr. Andrew Wokorac Joseph.

Dr. Richard Paley from the Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquatic Science (Cefas) while briefing the meeting said Cefas is an International Centre of Excellence involved in the maintenance of the health of wild and farmed seafood to minimize loss and maximize food security. He said as a world leader in marine science and technology, Cefas collects, manages and interprets data on the aquatic environment, biodiversity and fisheries. He their Weymouth lab has over 1100 scientists dedicated to aquatic health bringing together all the necessary disciplines that among many include disease inspection, diagnosis, research and development, microbiology, virology and many more.

Some of the Bachelor of Veterinary Medicine (BVM) students that attended the meeting. College of Veterinary Medicine, Animal Resources and Biosecurity (CoVAB), Makerere University, Kampala Uganda, East Africa.
Some of the Bachelor of Veterinary Medicine (BVM) students that attended the meeting.

The World Organisation for Animal Health (WOAH) designated Cefas as the WOAH Collaborating Centre for Emerging Aquatic Animal Diseases. He said their aim is to function as a global resource for health and disease research, diagnostics, pathogen detection and description, and knowledge sharing associated with aquatic animals. The meeting was attended among others by the Assoc. Prof. Jesca Nakavuma who is also undertaking research in Safe Fish that is investigating phages as alternatives to antibiotic use in fish management, as well as Veterinary medicine students.

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Veterinary & Biosecurity

COVAB capacity building engagement on Human Capital Development in Science, Technology, and Innovation Industrialization

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The College of Veterinary Medicine, Animal Resources and Bio-security (COVAB) Human Capital Development Project held a five-day capacity building training at Esella Hotel, Kira to equip the project’s staff and protégé with knowledge and skills in product value chain industrialization.

During the workshop which ran from 24th to 28th July 2023 staff and Protégé were imparted with knowledge on commercialization of an innovative product, strategic financial management, strategic planning and management, business planning, policy formulation and management.

At the opening ceremony, the Superintendent of Industrial Value Chains Development, Science, Technology, and Innovation (STI)- Office of the President, Dr. Cosmas Mwikirize pointed out that people were the most important in the process of development.

“In the development tree, people are the most important ingredient to development. No country can be better than the quality of its human resource,” said Dr. Mwikirize, adding that the mentorship model is important given that it gives opportunity to people to develop technologies, and hence no need to look for jobs.”

He further encouraged participants to embrace Science, Technology, and Innovation because of its big contribution to national GDP. “STI is the way out, and if you want a good place to invest your money, look at your students who have good ideas and start pulling resources. Invest in your people’s ideas and you will not go wrong,” said Dr. Mwikirize.

The Superintendent of Industrial Value Chains Development- Science, Technology, and Innovation (STI)- Office of the President, Dr. Cosmas Mwikirize making his remarks during the opening ceremony of the Human Capacity building workshop on 24th July, 2023 at Esella Hotel, Kira.

The protégés who participated in the workshop were all spread under STI Value Chain Economies which include the engineering economy, mobility, beauty and apparel, the digital economy, Agro security and the pathogenic economy.

In his welcome remarks, the Principal for the College of Veterinary Medicine, Animal Resources and Biosecurity, Prof. Frank Norbert Mwiine appreciated government support towards research and mentorship initiatives. “We thank the Government of Uganda for the support towards research and innovation through funding several projects, and for equipping the University with resources and laboratories for quality research,” said Prof. Mwiine.

Prof. Mwiine further emphasized the benefits of research, stating that nations need research to evolve.  Further, he emphasized that research and innovation is the way through whcih the University gives back to society.

The Principal for the College of Veterinary Medicine, Animal Resources and Biosecurity, Prof. Frank Norbert Mwine making a welcome address during the opening ceremony of the Human Capacity building workshop on 24th July, 2023 at Esella Hotel, Kira.

The Human Capital Development Project is championed by Dr. Claire Mack Mugasa, who is the Principal Investigator of this initiative. Dr. Mugasa highlighted the need for equipping scientists, researchers and innovators with specialized techniques which is a critical aspect in national development and industrialization.

The Principal Investigator for the Human Capital Development Project, Dr. Claire Mack Mugasa moderating the event during the opening ceremony of the Human Capacity building workshop on 24th July, 2023 at Esella Hotel, Kira.

“We have our scientists and innovators working separately and are not in touch with one another in their production lines, but with this mentorship programme, we are ensuring that the scientists have specialized skills, techniques, and knowledge that is key in industrialization,” said  Dr. Mugasa, adding that, “with some amount of redirection and orientation, the scientists will be brought together in a foundry network.”

The Human Capital Development Initiative is funded by the Government of Uganda through Science, Technology, and Innovation-Office of the President.

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