Can Agriculture Professionals roll up their sleeves and blunt the biting effect of drought, occasioned by climate change, on livestock production through research, innovations and entrepreneurship?
Seasonality of forage is one of the major challenges in meeting nutritional requirements of dairy, beef and dual-purpose cattle, goats, sheep, horses and donkeys in Eastern Africa. Feed scarcity for the livestock is occasioned by frequent and erratic droughts some of which are prolonged. To address this challenge, fodder production and conservation technologies such as hay, silage and haylage production technologies have been introduced and promoted as a potential strategy to addressing feed scarcity among farmers. These technologies are aimed at increasing livestock feed availability during the dry periods in addition to diversifying income through sale of hay bales and grass seed among communities. However, while previous studies have shown an increasing trend of acceptance and adoption of forage and its conservation as hay among farmers in Kenya, Tanzania, Ethiopia, Somalia and Djibouti, farmers in Uganda have not fully embraced the fodder conservation technologies. Failure by farmers to adopt scientific innovations to solve the real challenges of feed scarcity that face livestock farmers during prolonged drought makes us wonder why?
Why the Need for agricultural professors to roll up their sleeves?
Despite the known benefits of fodder conservation, which has been taught at Makerere University and other institutions of higher learning for over 50 years, there is scarcity of information on fodder value chain that is crucial in informing development and up scaling the technology of hay production as a business among the communities.
Prof. Kabi, an animal scientist from the College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences (CAES), Makerere University has innovated an alternative way of taking the university lecture room to the communities. Prof. Fred Kabi has rolled up his sleeves and has dedicated his livestock science knowledge, skills and over 10 acres of land situated in Kapeka to production of Chloris gayana hay intercropped with Centrosema pubscens legume. This could also be a driver for aspiring farmers to open up and learn a new approach to growing pastures and its conservation as hay for livestock feed as a way of diversifying enterprises at the farm. He is optimistic that within four years , he should open up about 40 acres populated with Chloris gayana and Cencherus ciliaris grasses together with Desmodium and Stylosanthes guianensis legumes all of which are drought tolerant pastures. In his words, this action is intended to blunt the biting effect of drought among dairy and beef farmers most of whom lose revenue during prolonged droughts when the milk prices are very high yet milk production drops due to insufficient fodder availability.
Ecological green gold for job creation and sustainable employment
High demand for milk and meat consumption in urban and peri-urban areas irrespective of seasons will be the major market driver for feeding hay to livestock as an alternative to the green chop of elephant grass during the dry seasons in Uganda. While elephant grass can be a promising source of fodder due to its prolific growth during the rainy season, its growth is seriously curtailed during the dry season leading to fodder deficiency. Moreover, it is during the dry season when the prices of milk go very high. Since the crude protein content of Chloris Gayana grass is comparable to that of elephant grass (about 9 to 12 %), Prof. Kabi thinks production of Chloris Gayana grass and the drought-tolerant legume pastures conserved as hay and their seeds needs to be exploited as an enterprise to meet the growing needs of farmers. Uptake of hay and seed production by entrepreneurs with the necessary factors of production, knowledge and skills is one way of turning the challenge of erratic and prolonged droughts into an opportunity for job creation and employment especially for the youth and women.
Together with his graduate students, Prof. Kabi thinks innovation along the dairy and meat value chains can lead to cottage industries where pasture hay can be pulverized into small pieces and mixed with other ingredients such as maize, cotton seed cake and minerals as a total mixed ration. When bagged rather than baling, Prof. Kabi considers this as a practical application of innovative feed solution for not only peri-urban farmers but as a potential export to the region. This is where the University don is advocating for a deliberate effort and government policy to make sure that just like Tourism is advertised, a deliberate effort to create jobs for the youth can be made by advertising Uganda as a possible source of bagged hay as green gold. Production of hay for local, regional markets is one of those efforts that can meaningfully engage the youth in the dairy and beef value chains. For effective exploitation of pasture hay as green gold, there is need for deliberate effort to organize not only production but the market. It is the belief of the professor of animal nutrition that the future of the youth involvement in the dairy or beef value chain only belongs to the organized. But organization of the youth in any production enterprise along any given value chain will only be successful if such production is driven by the market incentives Kabi says.
Turning the challenge into an opportunity
The CAES Communication office followed up Professor Kabi to Kapeka to establish the motivation behind his involvement in pasture grass establishment for livestock among the communities. The Don says that after careful analysis of the beef and dairy value chains from the perspective of an animal nutritionist, he has established that there were so many people who want to do dairy or beef farming business but lack pasture feed resource for their animals. Moreover, the scarcity of pastures is more prominent among peri-urban farmers with a good market of their milk and beef but with limited land to produce fodder for livestock. So, he took on that challenge as an opportunity.
“Secondly, during prolonged dry seasons which are due to the challenge of climate variability, livestock farmers cannot sustain the same number of animals at the farm kept in the wet season due to limited access to feeds. Since the consumers’ demand for milk and meat has gone up yet the farmers who produce milk and meat for one reason or the other cannot adopt technology for producing feeds for the milking animals during the dry season, someone has to close the gap but at a cost.
Scientists who preach the science of fodder conservation and nutrition in lecture room can now innovate and participate in value addition to pastures to bridge the gap of limited milk and meat supply during the dry season. Producing hay in Kapeka is like constructing a lecture room among the communities. This was one of my incentives to go into pasture production for hay. This will not only demystify the science of fodder production and conservation but will also create jobs among the youth, help in diversification of income and help build market for the hay and seed”, Prof. Kabi explained.
The don cites the experience of farmers in Uganda who planted maize and had to sell it at a price of UGX200 a kilogram. But a kilogram of hay goes for UGX500-700 or a bale of 10 to 15 kg from UGX5,000-7,000 while a kilogram of Chloris Gayana seeds fetches up to UGX3,000-4,000 while that of green leaf desmodium can fetch up to UGX150,000. This puts a farmer’s land and knowledge to good use and contributes to the dairy and beef value chain.
Clad in his blue overalls, the Professor cuts the mature Chloris Gayana, pauses and says, “Here, we are with the question – Can agricultural sciences, innovations and entrepreneurship blended with policies be able to solve the challenge of youth unemployment?”
The answer according to the Professor can be yes or no.
Prof. Kabi observed that farming in Uganda has been mainly on a small-scale subsistence without organized markets and this can never appeal to the youth as a cool engagement. In the affirmative, however, once there is organized market, this will be the driver for accepting scientific innovations and a way of igniting entrepreneurial skills among the youth for as long as they can be able to earn from their engagement in agriculture.
However, Kabi explains that understanding the whole dairy or beef value chains at the local, regional or at international level is crucial for positioning agriculture as a source of employment to the youth. For instance, about 50 years ago, Africa commanded about 6% of the global trade volume. This has been declining over the years and right now, Africa transacts about 2.4% of the global trade volume. To be specific, the current trend now indicates that the volume of trade of Africa excluding South Africa, Egypt and Morocco i.e. Sub Saharan Africa is 1.7% of the entire global trade. According to the Professor, this creates a worrying challenge of unemployment because there is an imbalance of trade.
“So how can agricultural sciences, innovations and entrepreneurship be able to take us back into commercial trade and export that was enjoyed by Africa in the 1950s? This is where export drive livestock production is so crucial to the nation Uganda. Uganda needs to understand the dairy, and meat value chains so that we can be able to position ourselves to penetrate the international market. This can be through non-conventional agricultural produce such as hay and pasture seed production”, explained the Professor as he pointed at the garden.
Borrowing from the Ethiopian experience, Professor Kabi said, at the last quarter of the year 2018 there was a deliberate effort in Addis Ababa for the country to access regional markets in terms of hay. Demand for hay market could go as far as the Middle East as a result of climate change, a development that entrepreneurs were taking advantage of.
In the middle East, Kabi cited that the market is interested in live meat goats of a given conformation. Finishing such goats on processed hay seems like a plausible way of meeting standards for such external markets. Relatedly, in an international meeting organized by the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) under the auspices Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) of the United Nations, the representatives of Intergovernmental Authority for Development (IGAD) opined that some countries can indirectly participate in the dairy and meat value chain by producing fodder that is required for the industry.
Prof. Kabi asserts that Uganda too, can have a cottage industry to process hay and make it ready for farmers who keep dairy and beef animals, spearheaded by professors who are the proponents of feed conservation but driven by the youth. The whole of Kampala for example has small holder farmers practicing zero grazing. The 10 acres of land under Chloris Gayana pasture production for hay is equivalent to 4 hectares. Each hectare can yield 25 to 35 tons of hay dry matter per year, which is estimated to annually feed 5-6 mature cows.
Kabi says, if we have several of such hay farmers organized into a cooperative, we can feed the dairy industry at a local level but with excess available for export to countries like Kenya which are yearning for feeding materials. But is there a deliberate effort by Uganda to organize both production and market of non-conventional produce so that people do not only look at growing priority crops such as maize but diversify to fodder as an alternative source of foreign exchange?” He asked.
Prof. Kabi notes that Uganda can be able to export hay to Kenya and middle east but this requires a deliberate effort to get both production and market organized. This he said is what happened when colonialists were able to organize markets for coffee, minerals and cotton.
“This explains why paradoxically the African share of the global trade almost a sixth of what it was 50 year back. The decline in the volume share of trade from Africa as a proportion of the global trade is certainly a reflection of the real poverty on the continent and together with unemployment for the youth”, He said.
The professor thinks that the only way to solve the challenge of imbalance of trade is to think beyond conventional trade especially of agricultural produce and to diversify it with alternative ecological exportable produce including processed hay for income and employment creation for the youth. Value addition through cottage industries where science, innovation and entrepreneurship is blended with deliberate policy of production driven by export trade is needed. Uganda can surely be marketed and known to be a hay basket for the whole region.
Prof. Kabi further notes that if a deliberate effort is not taken to create the markets for unconventional products, then the country can never have its agriculture produce access regional and international markets. However, he emphasized the need to export produce in a sustainable way, where sustainability means making use of low input natural resources like the Chloris Gayana intercropped with Centrosema as a legume that is naturally occuring but with value addition to be competitive in the market. This can be the basis for inspiring the youth to get involved in agriculture.
Nutritional value of Chloris Gayana
The high yield of Chloris Gayana of 25 to 35 tons per ha per year coupled with its high crude protein content of between 9-12% is comparable to that of 10 to 50 tons of elephant grass with crude protein content of 10 to 13 %. The most important point is that Chloris Gayana can withstand dry conditions making it the right crop in the face of climate change. It simply rejuvenates after cutting unlike elephant grass which is only prolific in growth during the rainy season. Besides, Chloris Gayana can be intercropped with legumes such as centrosema , desmodium (both green and silver leaf), siratro (Bishops purple), stylosanthes and glycine.
Farm management practices
The seedbed for Chloris has to be a fine tilled just as is the case for millet, because the seeds of the pasture are quite small. After seedbed preparation, you have to ensure that you plant at the onset of the rains in the same planting season of maize. Furrows are dug either manually or mechanically. Chloris Gayana is planted in rows like maize at spacing of 2ft from one row to another to allow ease of weeding because while young it can easily succumb to weeds. The seeds are mixed with sand, black soil or preferably composted cattle manure and broadcast within the dug furrows. A thin layer of soil is used to cover the seeds so that they do not fail to emerge and to protect them from being systematically eaten up by birds. After some 7 to 14 days, the seed will germinate. However, if it is dry, it may fail to germinate. If the germination percentage of the seed is 50% and above, the seed bed should be entirely covered by three months. If the germination percentage is below 50%, allow the seeds to shutter in the garden. With proper weeding and rains, the next ratoon will be ready for seed harvesting after 30 to 50 days. After harvesting you weed and manure the grass to that it can maintain the growth vigor.
Unlike the Chloris gayana seed which has to be harvested as soon as it is ready to avoid shuttering and its destruction especially by the birds, hay should preferably be harvested at dough stage when half way the garden is flowered. However, the harvesting should coincide with the onset of the dry season to avoid moulding. The cut grass should be raked to enable thorough drying to only 15 % moisture content like maize grain. The dried hay should then be baled using either tractor driven hay balers or hand-operated hay baler boxes. Baled hay should then be kept in a cool and dry shelter that is water proof preferably raised on pallets or in a crib like maize. Failure to adhere to these conditions will lead to moulding.
Challenges of farming Chloris Gayana
Growing the fodder on ten acres requires machinery including a tractor and accessories such as a reciprocating mower, a rake, a tractor-operated baler and a drying shed for green curing so that customers end up with green rather than golden hay color before its storage. This is crucial in conserving the beta carotene or the precursor for vitamin A necessary for the yellowish creamy color of milk.
The other major challenge challenge is labor. Youth do not think hay is a lucrative business to be engaged in. However, professor Kabi thinks if organized and turned into an enterprise, the youth will realize hay production is green gold that is worth getting engaged in especially if the market is streamlined. This is the reason why the professors should roll up their sleeves, get their hands dirty as role models for the youth and attempt to turn the challenge of prolonged drought occasioned to livestock by climate change into an opportunity.
Report compiled by;
Principal Communication Officer, CAES
Rotary International President visits Mak
Rotary International President Shekhar Mehta has appreciated Makerere University for supporting and carrying forward the newly introduced programme aimed at advancing peace on the African Continent. Launched in January 2020, the Rotary Peace Centre at Makerere University runs a postgraduate diploma programme in Peace-building and Conflict Transformation. The hands-on program entails coursework that addresses topics including human rights, governance, and the role of the media in conflict. Other studies focus on refugees and migration, as well as resource and identity-based conflicts.
At a high level meeting held with the University leadership on 15th September 2021 at CTF1, President Shekhar Mehta said Rotary International was proud to be partnering with Makerere to promote peace on the African Continent. “The mere absence of war does not translate into total peace. Besides war, there are many other factors undermining peaceful co-existence. It is our duty to address these issues so as to create harmony in our communities. Through the Rotary Peace Centres across the globe, we are undertaking a number of initiatives aimed at promoting peace. Since 2002, the Rotary Peace Centres have trained more than 1,300 fellows who are working to advance peace in more than 115 countries. We are happy to work with Makerere University to foster peace and development on the African Continent,” he noted. President Shekhar Mehta, who was on a three-day tour of Rotary projects in Uganda, was visiting Makerere for the first time since the University won the bid to host the International Rotary Peace Centre, the first of its kind on the African Continent.
President Shekhar Mehta, who was in company of past and current Governors of Districts 9213 and 9214, said peace was a necessary catalyst for the progress of humanity and general development of nation states across the globe. Elected for the 2021-22 term, President Shekhar Mehta, through his year theme Serve to Change Lives, asks Rotarians to participate in service projects where they can make a difference in their communities and the people who live in them. Since he joined Rotary in 1984 as a member of the Rotary Club of Calcutta-Mahanagar, West Bengal, India, President Shekhar Mehta has led many major service initiatives in India and South Asia, including among others, constructing 500 homes for Tsunami survivors at Andaman and Nicobar Islands, and starting the Shelter Kit programme in India which has served about 20 disasters and benefited about 75,000 disaster victims.
Delivering her remarks, the Chairperson Council, Mrs. Lorna Magara appreciated Rotary International for entrusting Makerere University with the mandate to host the first rotary peace centre on the African Continent. “Choosing to house the Centre at Makerere University shows Rotary International’s trust and confidence in Makerere and her vision for building for the future. We are grateful for the opportunity to contribute to the advancement of Rotary International’s agenda. We also sincerely appreciate Rotarians all over the world who have committed funds to support the Rotary Peace Centre at Makerere University,” she noted. Similarly, she appreciated The Rotary Foundation (TRF) of Canada for setting up an endowment fund for the Peace Centre. “This will go a long way in ensuring the sustainability of the Peace Centre at Makerere University. The fund will help in the Capstone week where Fellows will present their social initiatives. These initiatives will showcase how the Rotary Peace Centre contributes to positive peace initiatives all over the world.”
In his remarks, the Vice Chancellor, Prof. Barnabas Nawangwe informed the President that the decision to establish the first Rotary Peace Centre in Africa at Makerere University was welcomed with ‘excitement and gratefulness’. “We consider this to be a vote of confidence in our efforts in the peace and conflict resolution agenda. We extend our appreciation to Rotarians in Uganda and beyond for selflessly supporting this noble cause.” The Vice Chancellor appreciated the leadership of the College of Humanities and Social Sciences at Makerere, and the Director of the Centre, Dr Helen Nambalirwa Nkabala for their tireless efforts in ensuring the centre achieves the intended objective.
By the end of this year, the Centre will have hosted two cohorts of peace fellows. The first cohort was at Makerere University between February and May, 2021. Currently, these Peace fellows are carrying out their peace initiatives in their communities. The second cohort will report on September 27, 2021. In both cohorts, Peace Fellows were chosen from 20 countries and by the end of the year, the Centre will have had a total of 36 Fellows.
Intentionality Key to Nurturing More Women Leaders
The Gender Mainstreaming Directorate (GMD), Makerere University on 14th September 2021 presented findings from phase one of the study on Enhancing Women’s Participation and Visibility in Leadership and Decision-Making Organs of Public Universities in Uganda through Action Research. The study team led by the Director GMD and Principal Investigator (PI), Dr. Euzobia Mugisha Baine also consists of Assoc. Prof. Consolata Kabonesa, Dr. Anna Ninsiima, Ms. Frances Nyachwo, Ms. Susan Mbabazi and Mr. Eric Tumwesigye.
The team is also made of coordinators from participating Universities such as Busitema University-Ms. Elizabeth Birabwa, Kabale University-Sr. Dr. Eva Tumusiime, Mbarara University of Science and Technology (MUST)-Dr. Specioza Twinamasiko, Muni University-Ms. Amandru Stella Wawa, and Gulu Univeristy-Sr. Rosalba Aciro.
Funded by the Government of Uganda through the Makerere University Research and Innovations Fund (Mak-RIF), the study was inspired by the fact that women are persistently few in numbers as staff, more so in leadership and decision-making organs of Ugandan Public Universities. “This is despite all the various efforts at national and international levels; the numbers are not growing as fast as needed to meet development goals of the country” explained Dr. Euzobia.
Based on this background, the study team therefore sought to conduct a situational analysis of the gender terrain of the six public universities to obtain baseline information encompassing the composition of governance and leadership organs and senior staff by sex, as well as a needs assessment and profiles of potential mentors and mentees.
Furthermore, the team sought to explore the capacity to conduct gender-responsive research as well as the role of male staff engagement in gender equity interventions within the universities as the drivers of development.
Dr. Mugisha-Baine shared that results of the baseline would then be used to design participatory training manuals or guides on gender and leadership. The manuals would cover; Institutionalized mentorship, How to conduct gender-responsive research, gender and equity budgeting, among others.
“Within these manuals, we shall have a male staff engagement strategy in gender equity interventions in universities” she explained.
The development of the aforementioned materials would then be followed by their adoption and use to build capacity for women not only in leadership of participating and other public university but also beyond. “We shall periodically evaluate whether the capacity we have built has influenced women’s participation in leadership and decision-making organs of the university” supplemented the PI.
The capacity building trainings for women, it is envisaged, will lay the foundation for the formation of a functional Uganda University Women’s Think Tank, starting with the six participating universities. Dr. Mugisha Baine added that through this Think Tank, a monitoring and tracking system for gender representation in recruitment, promotion, retention/turnover and leadership of public universities shall be established and maintained.
At the conclusion of phase one, the study team had drafted participatory training manuals in gender and leadership with content on; gender specific critical analysis of the leadership spectrum of public universities, positioning of individual women within the institutional framework and strategies for their advancement, gender equity advocacy in the university setting, institutional mentorship, building capacity in conducting gender-responsive research, among others.
“This content will be validated by the participating universities before the actual research training is conducted” added the PI.
On behalf of the research team, Dr. Mugisha Baine thanked the Government of Uganda for providing the resources that facilitated phase one of the study and prayed that the Mak-RIF Grants Management Committee (GMC) would support the next phase of capacity building.
Speaking on behalf of the Mak-RIF GMC Chairperson, Prof. William Bazeyo, Dr. Helen Nambalirwa Nkabala thanked and congratulated the team led by the Director GMD upon the milestones registered in the critical research.
“We are very proud of that work that is being done by all researchers in Mak-RIF and we would like to most sincerely thank Management for all the support throughout this process” she remarked.
Dr. Nkabala encouraged the research team to continue disseminating and using the findings for the furtherance of gender mainstreaming, particularly through the aspect of male staff engagement in gender equity interventions.
Prior to delivering the keynote address of the day, the Executive Director National Council for Higher Education (NCHE) Prof. Mary Okwakol thanked the Vice Chancellor, Prof. Barnabas Nawangwe for inviting her to the important forum, noting that women’s participation in decision making and governance is a priority area of the Uganda Gender Policy 2007.
She commended Makerere University for being at the forefront of gender mainstreaming in Uganda, noting that this prominence was one of the reasons why the Gender in Education Policy 2007 provides for replicating the institution’s strategy in all other Higher Education Institutions.
Prof. Okwakol whose keynote address was punctuated incisive personal examples reaffirmed the statistics that women are generally not visible in leadership of Universities. That notwithstanding, in instances where they rise to leadership and decision-making positions, they are regularly subject to roles traditionally deemed as women’s inconsiderate of their managerial seniority and experience.
She nevertheless rallied the women to play their respective roles in enhancing participation and visibility at a personal level. The following were some of the strategies she proposed; work hard to acquire academic credentials so as to compete favourably with men, acquire necessary administrative training and experience, network among women, join professional networks as well as do research and publish.
On joining professional networks, she shared her personal experience as a young zoologist who joined UNESCO’s Tropical Biology and Fertility Programme. “Within a short time I was appointed Coordinator for Africa and after two years, I was elected as a Member of the International Board of Management. After serving for two years, I became Vice Chairperson of that Board and finally I became Chairperson of that International Board.”
At the institutional level, Prof. Okwakol appealed to the Chairperson Council and Vice Chancellor to proactively recruit women who meet the requirements for leadership positions even if it means actively seeking out the reluctant ones. In this regard, she shared that it would be useful for the university to develop a database of women and their qualifications to ease this process.
She shared that NCHE has in recognition of female underrepresentation at every level in Higher Education approved the establishment of a Gender and Equity Unit with the aim of promoting inclusive gender participation in the sub-sector.
“This unit has been placed under the Directorate of Quality Assurance and Accreditation which implies that as we look out for and regulate quality, gender will be a very important aspect of that regulation” she reassured.
Prof. Okwakol concluded by urging participants to read the; Third National Development Plan (NDPIII), Uganda Vision 2040, and Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) noting that there is no way all three can be achieved while women are left behind because they each make a case for inclusion of the female gender.
“What we are addressing here are historical injustices” said Prof. Barnabas Nawangwe as he commenced his remarks, “And in the case of Makerere University, it is well known that the institution started as a male-only institution and we all know the original motto was ‘Let us be men’” he added.
Citing examples from history such as; Marie Curie – one of the smartest physicists, Hatshepsut, Nefertiti and Cleopatra – prominent Pharaohs of Egypt, George Eliot, Rosa Luxemburg and Hypatia – all great philosophers as well as Chancellor Angela Merkel – first female Chancellor of Germany, the Vice Chancellor said there is no plausible argument that there are things women cannot do as well as their male counterparts.
He said it was against this knowledge and in a bid to correct historical injustices that Makerere University pioneered initiatives such as putting in place affirmative action for girls, establishing a Gender Mainstreaming Directorate as well as a School of Women and Gender Studies. The Vice Chancellor nevertheless stressed the need to go beyond pioneering to protecting these gains through legislation. “Historically we have seen that discrimination can only be addressed by laws and policies.”
Prof. Nawangwe thanked the Government for providing funds to support Mak-RIF as well as the Funds GMC and Secretariat for ensuring that these funds are put to good use. He equally thanked the Chairperson of Council, Mrs. Lorna Magara for her not only her support but also sparing time to attend a good number of the research dissemination events.
Delivering the concluding remarks, Mrs. Magara acknowledged that the study was timely and relevant the contemporary University, as one of the critical drivers of the national and international development agenda. She therefore reechoed the Vice Chancellor’s thanks to the Government of Uganda for generously supporting the University’s research through Mak-RIF.
Turning to the keynote speaker she said, “I thank Prof. Okwakol for ardently discussing the critical issues affecting the female gender, the strategies to overcome the challenges, including sharing her inspiring personal experiences.”
Mrs. Magara equally thanked Prof. Okwakol for her very instructional analysis, providing mentorship guidance with the resultant impact of enhancing the female gender in decision-making positions. In the same breath she congratulated the PI and her team upon successfully concluding phase one of the project.
“Phase one has generated insights in understanding the status of women in leadership in public universities, the legal and policy framework and its implications on women’s visibility, the institutional mentoring systems and the gaps therein” she observed.
The Chairperson of Council acknowledged that the challenge of underrepresentation of women in leadership roles cannot be resolved at an individual level. She therefore advocated for broad based strategies that can address deep-seated structural and cultural biases facing women. “These include developing mentorship networks, enacting laws and policies that address the imbalances and providing training programmes to address the leadership gaps.”
She therefore pledged the University Council’s unwavering support to the Gender Mainstreaming Programme by ensuring an enabling policy environment that facilitates gender-responsive teaching, learning, research innovation and community service.
The research dissemination was moderated by the Principal Public Relations Officer (PRO), Ms. Ritah Namisango and the Director Communications, Learning and Knowledge Management, ResilientAfrica Network (RAN) and PRO Mak-RIF, Ms. Harriet Adong.
Section Editors & Associate Editors Wanted-CABI Agriculture & Biosciences Journal
The CABI Agriculture and Biosciences Journal (CABI A&B) is still in search of both Associate Editors to join the CABI A&B Editorial Board, as well as a Regional Editor-in-Chief to lead for Africa in addition to serving as a Section Editor in the area of either Environmental and SOIL SCIENCE, AGROECOLOGY, OR AQUACULTURE AND FISHERIES. Ideally CABI wants Section Editors (SE) who are prominent members of their research communities, with high-level established positions at a research institution, with a strong, current record of international collaborations and publication, with an H-index of at least 25. For Associate Editors (AE) we hope for researchers who have with established positions at a research institution (e.g., not post-docs or Ph.D. candidates), with a strong growing record of international collaborations and publication (e.g., around 8 publications in the past two years), and have an H-index of at least 15.
Very importantly, CABI hopes for SEs and AEs who are good communicators and are passionate about serving and building the journal to be an outlet for both large and small steps of sound science that will improve the lives and livelihoods of people worldwide.
Please see Downloads for the CABI EDITORIAL DIRECTORY
Interested applicants should email PHILIPPA J. BENSON, PH.D. MANAGING EDITOR | _CABI A&B | P.BENSON[at]CABI.ORG